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Scots In The US Army

REVOLUTION. Alexander MacDougall (1731-86), born in Islay, successively Colonel, Brigadier-General, and Major-General in the Revolutionary War, and later Delegate to the Continental Congress in 1780 and 1784, was described by Washington as "a brave soldier and distinguished patriot." Before the outbreak of the war he was a successful merchant, a leader of the "Sons of Liberty," and was the first American imprisoned for his utterances in behalf of independence. Macdougal Street, New York city, commemorates his name. Robert Erskine (1735-1780), geographer and Chief of Engineers on the staff of Washington, was a son of Rev. Ralph Erskine of Dunfermline. Washington erected a stone over his grave at Ringwood, New Jersey. Henry Knox (1750-1806), General of Artillery and Secretary of War (1785-95). Lieutenant-Colonel Richard Clough Anderson (1750-1826) was grandson of a Scottish emigrant. General James Ewing (c. 1736-1806), of Ulster Scot descent, served in Braddock's campaign and also during the Revolution. General William Wirt Henry was descended from an Ulster Scot who came between 1718 and 1722 to Massachusetts. General Richard Montgomery (1736-75), a descendant of the Montgomeries of Ayrshire, was killed while leading the attack on Quebec; and Major John Macpherson (1754-75), of Scots parentage, killed beside Montgomery, was the first soldier of prominence from Pennsylvania to be killed in the war. Bancroft calls him "the pure-minded, youthful enthusiast for liberty." Colonel Allan McLane (1746-1829), of Scottish origin, repeatedly referred to in Dr. Weir Mitchell's "Hugh Wynne," was one of the "Rough Riders" who patrolled the country around Philadelphia to prevent provisions reaching the British troops in the city. His flight and escape from the British in one of these raids was the subject of a painting by James Peale. General Hugh Mercer (c. 1725-1777), born in Aberdeen, died of wounds received at the battle of Princeton, also served with distinction in the Braddock and Forbes campaigns in western Pennsylvania. His life was a strenuous one, full of exacting and unselfish work for others, and as Judge Goolrick says in his "Life of Mercer," he "is entitled to the gratitude of all liberty-loving America." Mercer county, New Jersey, was named in his honor. John Armstrong (1725-95), born in the North of Ireland of Scottish ancestry, served in the French and Indian War (1755-56), was Brigadier-General in the Continental Army (1776-77), and Delegate to the Continental Congress (1778-80, 1787-88). Colonel James Livingston (1747-1832), by his timely shot drove the British warship "Vulture" from her anchorage in the North River "thus securing the capture of André, effecting the discomfiture of Arnold's treason, and assuring the safety of West Point, the key of the Revolution." James Chrystie (1750-1807), born in or near Edinburgh, joined the Revolutionary Army and served with high reputation till the end of the war. On the discovery of Arnold's plot at West Point he was entrusted with a delicate mission by Washington, which he executed successfully. His son, Lieutenant-Colonel James Chrystie, earned a name for himself at the Battle of Queenstown in the war of 1812. William Davidson (1746-1781), born in Pennsylvania of Scottish parentage or descent, was a Brigadier-General in the Revolutionary Army, and was killed in the fight at the ford over Catawba River, January 31, 1781. Congress voted five hundred dollars for a monument to his memory, and Davidson College, North Carolina, is named in his honor. General William Macpherson (1756-1813), born in Philadelphia of Scottish parents, was in the British service at the time of the Revolution, but resigned and joined the colonies, and served faithfully under Washington. Major Robert Kirkwood was killed in the battle against the Miami Indians in 1792, the thirty-third time he had risked his life for his country. Lachlan McIntosh (1727-1806), of the family of MacIntosh of Borlum, was born in Badenoch, Inverness-shire, and came to America with his father who settled in Georgia. He volunteered his services on the outbreak of the Revolution, becoming General in 1776. He was second in command at Savannah and took part in the defence of Charleston. McIntosh county, Georgia, is named after his family, "whose members have illustrated the state, in both field and forum, since the days of Oglethorpe." William Moultrie (1731-1805), born in England or South Carolina, son of the Scottish physician, Dr. John Moultrie, ancestor of the Moultries of South Carolina, repulsed the attack on Sullivan's Island in 1776 and defended Charleston in 1779. Fort Moultrie was named in his honor. Andrew Pickens (1739-1817), of Scottish parentage, was noted as a partizan commander in South Carolina (1779-81), served with distinction at Cowpens in 1781, and captured Atlanta, Georgia, in the same year. Pickens county, Georgia, bears his name. John Stark (1728-1822), one of the most noted Generals of the Revolution, serving with distinction in several campaigns, was a member of the Court Martial which condemned Major André. Arthur St. Clair (1734-1818), born at Thurso, Caithness, took part in many battles of the Revolution, was President of Congress in 1787, and Governor of the Northwest Territory (1789-1802). William Alexander (1726-83), titular Lord Stirling, born in Albany of Scottish parentage, commanded a Brigade at the Battle of Long Island, and also served at Trenton, Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth. John Paterson (1744-1808), grandson of a Dumfriesshire emigrant, took part in many battles of the Revolution, commissioned Major-General in 1783, the youngest one of that rank in the army, and was one of the organizers of the Society of Cincinnati. General Daniel Stewart was another patriot of the Revolution. A county in Georgia is named in his honor.

MEXICAN WAR. Winfield Scott (1786-1866), grandson of a Scot who fought at Culloden, was born in Virginia, and entered the army in 1808. He served with great ability in the War of 1812, later became Major-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Army in 1841. During the war with Mexico he held chief command of the Army, and became Lieutenant-General in 1847. John Munroe (c. 1796-1861), born in Ross-shire, entered the United States Army, saw service against the Florida Indians, became Chief of Artillery under General Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War, and was subsequently Military and Civil Governor of New Mexico (1849-50). James Bowie (1795-1836), of Scottish descent and of "Bowie-knife" celebrity, took part in the Texan Revolution and was killed at the Alamo in 1836. Bowie county and the town of Bowie in Montague county, Texas, perpetuate his name. The Bowies were a prominent family in Maryland, occupying high positions in politics, jurisprudence, and society.

CIVIL WAR. General David Bell Birney (1825-64), son of James Gillespie Birney, served with distinction in the Army of the Potomac. General Ambrose Everett Burnside (1824-81), later Governor of Rhode Island (1867-69), and United States Senator (1875-81), was grandson of a Scot who emigrated to South Carolina at end of the eighteenth century. Samuel Wylie Crawford (1829-92), of Scottish ancestry, was brevetted Major-General of Volunteers for conspicuous gallantry, and wrote "Genesis of the Civil War" (1887). Major-General Thomas Ewing (1829-96), was descendant of Thomas Ewing who emigrated to New Jersey in 1715. James Lorraine Geddes (1829-87), born in Edinburgh, brevetted Brigadier-General for his services, was also a poet, and wrote "The Soldier's Battle Prayer," "The Stars and Stripes," etc. John Brown Gordon (1832-1904), Lieutenant-General in the Confederate Army and later Governor of Georgia, was descendant of John George Gordon and his wife Mary Chapman, emigrants from Scotland. General Charles Smith Hamilton (1822-96), of Scottish descent, also served with distinction in the Mexican War. General Grant ascribed the success of the repulse at Corinth to him. Thomas Jonathan Jackson (1824-63), "Stonewall Jackson," the noted Confederate General, was of Ulster Scot descent. John Alexander Logan (1826-86), of Ulster Scot parentage, was later unsuccessful candidate for the Vice-Presidency in 1884, United States Senator (1871-77, 1879-86), and author of "The Great Conflict" (1866). Major-General Robert McAllister (1813-91), great-grandson of Archibald McAllister from Scotland, 1732. Charles Lafayette McArthur (1824-98), soldier, politician, and journalist, was of Scots parentage. General Arthur McArthur (1845-1912), of Scots parentage, son of Arthur McArthur the Jurist, later served in the Philippines, became in 1906 Lieutenant-General, being the twelfth officer in the history of the Army to attain that rank. Described as "our best read and best informed soldier." His son, Douglas, served with distinction in the Great War. John McArthur, born in Erskine, Scotland, in 1826, emigrated to United States in 1849, was brevetted Major-General for gallantry. General George Archibald McCall (1802-68), served in the Florida and Mexican Wars, and also rendered distinguished service in the Civil War. Daniel Craig McCallum (1815-78), born in Renfrewshire, Superintendent of the Erie Railroad (1855-56), was Director of Military Roads in the United States (1862-65), and became Major-General in 1866. "He introduced the inflexible arched truss, which has probably been in more general use in the United States than any other system of timber bridges." The McCooks, of Scottish descent, two Ohio families with a remarkable military record, often distinguished as the "Tribe of Dan" and "Tribe of John" from their respective heads—two brothers, Major Daniel and Dr. John McCook. All the sons, fourteen in number, served either in the Army or Navy, and all but one were commanding officers. Clinton Dugald McDougal (b. 1839), Major-General and later Member of Congress (1872-77), was born in Scotland. Irvin McDowell (1818-85), served in the Mexican War, in the Civil War had command of the Army of the Potomac, Major-General in 1872, was descendant of emigrant from Londonderry shortly after the siege in which his ancestor took part. General John Bankhead Magruder (1810-71) and Commander George Magruder of the Confederate Army were said to be "direct descendants of the illustrious Rob Roy McGregor." Alexander Mackenzie (b. 1844), Chief of Engineers, was of Scots parentage. David McMurtrie Gregg (b. 1833), served with distinction in battles of the Wilderness, and was afterwards Auditor-General of Pennsylvania. John McNeil (1813-91), Brigadier-General, was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, of Scots parentage. General James Birdseye Macpherson (1828-64), of Ulster Scot descent, took a most prominent part in many battles. General Grant said at his death: "The country has lost one of its best soldiers, and I have lost my best friend." William Macrae (1834-82), of Scottish descent, Brigadier-General in the Confederate Army was afterwards General Superintendent of the Wilmington and Manchester Railroad. William Addison Phillips (1824-93), soldier, statesman, and author, born in Paisley, refused to leave his command to accept the nomination for Governor of his state (Kansas). He was author of "Labor, Land, and Law" (1886). John Robertson (1814-87), born in Banffshire, was Adjutant-General of Michigan from 1861 to 1887. He was author of "The Flags of Michigan," "Michigan in the War," etc. James Alexander Walker (1832-1901), descendant of John Walker who came from Wigtown (c. 1730), was also Member of Congress (1895-99) and Lieutenant Governor of Virginia (1877).

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