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Scottish Surnames, Baillie to Burnett

BAILLIE
A bailiff.

Bailie, Isabel of Hawick. Singer. The only British singer to appear with Toscanini on three occasions. Toured New Zealand, Malaya and S. Africa.

Baillie, Matthew (1761-1823) of Shotts. Physician and Anatomist. Wrote the first treatise in English on morbid anatomy (1793.

BAIN
White, fair, pale.

Bain, Alexander (1810-77) of Watten, Caithness. Invented the chemical telegraph in 1843. He also invented an electric clock (1851) and a fire alarm system.

Bain, Alexander (1818-1903) of Aberdeen. Psychologist and writer on mental philosophy.

Bain, David (1855-1933) of Reay, Caithness. Carriage and wagon superintendent with the Midland Railway (1902-19). Controller of timber supplies, Min. of Munitions (1916-18).

Bain, Sir Frederick (1889-1950) of Banffshire. Director, Royal Insurance Co., Liverpool and Globe Ins. Co., Chairman Chemical Con-trol Board Min. of Supply (1941-44), Chemical Planning Commission Min. of Production (1943-44).

Bain, William Alexander (1905-) of Dunbar. Professor of Pharmocology, Univ. of Leeds (1946-47), Press editor British Journal of Pharmocology and Chemotherapy (1953-57).

BAIRD
An old tradition in this family records that William the Lion, while hunting in one of the southwest counties, happening to wander from his attendants, was alarmed by the approach of a wild boar, and calling out for assistance, a gentleman of the name of Baird, who had followed the king, came up and had the good fortune to slay the object of the monarch's alarm. For this signal service, William conferred upon his deliverer large grants of lands, and assigned him for his coat of arms, a boar passant, and for his motto: "Dominus fecit," which arms are to be seen upon an ancient monument of the Bairds of Auchmedden in the churchyard of Banff.

The name derives from 'bard' meaning 'poet'. Robert, son of Waldave de Biggar, granted a Charter to Richard Baird of Meikle and Little Kyp in Lanarkshire in the thirteenth century. The surname appears in the fourteenth century in Aberdeenshire and in the Lothians.

Baird, Sir David (1757-1829) of East Lothian. In 1805-06 he commanded an expedition which successfully wrested the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch.

Baird, John Logie (1888-1946) ofHelensburgh. Invented Television. First shown to the public in 1925.

The Bairds. For saving his life from a wild boar, King William the Lion is said to have made extensive grants of land to one of his followers named Baird. A charter was granted to Richard Baird of Meikle and Little Kyp in Lanarkshire, and King Robert the Bruce granted the Barony of Cambusnethan to a Robert Baird. This family of Cambusnethan spread to Banffshire, and later to Auchmeddan in Aberdeenshire. George Baird of Auchmeddan married the niece of the Earl Marischal and the family increased in importance, and supplied a long
line of sheriffs to that county. From the Auchmeddan branch came the Bairds of Newbyth and Saughtonhall; and John, who died in 1698, was created Knight Baronet, and made a Lord of Session with the title Lord Newbyth. General Sir David Baird, Bart., K.C.B., born in 1757, entered the army in 1772, and in command of the 73rd regiment reached Madras in 1780. When seriously wounded he was captured by Hyder Ali, and remained a prisoner until 1784. He and a sergeant were the only two remaining of the original 73rd regiment. He was at the capture of Pondicherry in 1793, and in 1799 he captured Seringapatam. He campaigned in several countries, captured the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch in 1807, and in the same year was at the siege of Copenhagen. In 1808 he joined Sir John Moore at Corunna. After Moore's death he assumed the chief command, and had the honour of announcing the victory to the government. He received many honours, and died in 1829.

BALDERSTON
Local: from Balderston in Linlithgowshire.

BALFOUR
Local: from the castle and barony of Balfour near the junction of the rivers Or and Leven. The family are descended from Sir Michael de Balfour, temp. William the Lion.

Balfour, Sir Andrew (1873-1931) of Edinburgh. Novelist and expert on tropical medicine and public health. Made several important discoveries in protozoology.

Balfour, Arthur James (1838-1930) 1st Earl Whittinghame, of E. Lothian. Prime Minister of Gt. Britain (1902-05).

Balfour, Sir Isaac Bayley (1853-1922), of Edinburgh. Botanist. Sherardian Professor of Botany at Oxford (1884-88). Elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1884. Editor of The Annals of Botany from 1887.

Balfour, John Hutton (1808-84) of Edinburgh. Botanist. Keeper of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Was Dean of the faculty of Medicine in Edinburgh for 30 years.

BALLANTINE
Local: from Baalen, and teine, fire, the fire of Baal. A place where Bal, or Belus, was worshiped by the Celts.

Ballantine, James (1772-1833) of Kelso. Editor and publisher. The first to introduce an improved style of printing into Scotland.

Ballantine, James (1808-77) of Edinburgh. Poet and painter. Revived the art of glass painting.

Ballantyne, Robert Michael (1825-94) of Edinburgh. Popular writer of books for boys; The Coral Island, The World of Ice, The Dog Crusoe, etc.

BANNATYNE
A hill where fires were kindled.

BANNERMAN
Assumed because of the family being hereditary standard bearers to the king; they bear in their arms a banner displayed argent, on a,canton azure, St. Andrew's cross.

Bannerman, William Burney (1858-1924) of Perthshire. Major-General, Surgeon-General, Madras (1911-18). Elected FRS.

BARBER
A dresser of the hair and beard.

BARCLAY
Originally Berkely. The name signifies a birchfield, and was from the town of Berkely in Gloucestershire. Roger de Berkely, a Saxon living at the time of the conquest was the grandfather of Theobald de Berkely, who settled in Scotland, and was the ancestor of the Barclays.

Of Norman origin, the surname derives from Roger de Berkeley as does that of the English Berkeleys from Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire. They settled in Scotland in the twelfth century. Sir Walter Barclay of Gartly, Lord of Redcastle and Inverkeillor, was Chamberlain of Scotland under William the Lion. The male line of Gartly ended with Walter, Canon of Moray in 1456. His sister married the Laird of Towie-Barclay and thus carried the chiefship into that house.

Field marshal Michael Andreas Barclay was commander of the Russian Army which defeated Napoleon in 1812. He was created Prince Barclay de Tolly.

Barclay, William (1907-78) of Wick, Caithness. Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, Univ of Glasgow (1963-). Lecturer and broadcaster.

Barclay-ALLARDICE, Capt. Robert (1779-1854) Scottish soldier and sportsman. Walked 1,000 miles in 1,000 consecutive hours in 1809. He was the sponsor and trainer of Tom Cribb, the English prize-fighter who retired unbeaten. Drove a coach non-stop from London to Aber-deen for 1,000 wager.

The Barclays in Scotland are claimed to have descended from the Berkeleys who came to England with William the Conqueror. In 1165 Walter de Berkeley was Chamberlain of Scotland, and in the 12th and 13th centuries the Berkeleys were numerous in Kincardineshire and the east of Scotland. The Barclays of Mathers traced their descent from Alexander, who obtained these lands in 1351 on his marriage to the sister of the Great Marischal of Scotland. His son was the first of the clan to spell his name Barclay. The lands remained in the possession of the family until David Barclay, born in 1580, was compelled for financial reasons to sell his estates. The chief-ship passed to the descendants of James Barclay of Mill of Towie in the 19th century.

The Barclays of Urie are descended from Colonel David Barclay, who had served under Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, and who purchased the estate of Urie in 1647. Robert, his eldest son, became the celebrated apologist of the Quakers. In 1682 he was appointed Governor of East Jersey, but he did not go out, although his brother John settled there. Robert died, in 1690.

Other important branches of the family were the Barclays of Collairnie in Fife, the Barclays of Pierston, and the Barclays of Ardrossan. The Barclays of Tolly, in Aberdeenshire, remained in possession of the lands from the 12th till the 18th century, and from this family
was descended the famous Russian General, Field Marshal Prince Barclay de Tolly, who died in 1818.

BARON
A valiant man.

BARR
Local: from the parish of Barr in Ayrshire.

Barr, Archibald (1855-1931) from near Paisley. Engineer, who with William Stroud founded the firm Barr & Stroud, Scientific instrument makers and pioneers in Naval range finders.

Barr, Robert (1850-1912) of Glasgow. Novelist and journalist. Became the reporter on the Detroit Free Press in 1881. He collaborated with Jerome K. Jerome in founding The Idler.

Barrie, Sir James Matthew (1860-1937) of Kirriemuir. Playwright, journalist and author of considerable merit. Creator of Peter Pan in 1904. His other works incl. The Admirable Crichton (1902) and Dear Brutus (1912).

BAXTER
A baker.

Baxter, James (1886-1964) of Ayrshire. Philosopher and economist. Financial Sec. to the Egyptian Govt. (1925-28). Financial adviser to the Govt. of Siam (1932-35) and to the Govt. of Burma (1937-43). Financial and Economic Expert to the Egyptian Govt. (1943-46).

Baxter, James Houston (1894-1973) of Glasgow. Prof. of Ecclesias-tical History, Univ. of St Andrews (1922-). Sec. of the British Academy Committee on the Dictionary of Mediaeval Latin.

Baxter, Stanley (1926-) of Glasgow. Award winning actor on stage and TV. His Big Picture Show won an award for the best light entertainment programme of 1973, and his Moving Picture Show voted best comedy show of 1974 by the Broadcasting Press Guild and Soc. of Films and TV Arts.

Baxter, William T. (1906-) of Edinburgh. Professor of Accounting, London School of Economics (1947-). Prof. of Accounting, Univ. of Cape Town (1937-).

BELL
Bell, Alexander Graham (1847-1922) of Edinburgh. Went to America where he invented the telephone in 1875-76. Became Professor of Vocal Physiology at Boston Univ. in 1873. He also invented the photo-phone, a device for optically showing sound waves.

Bell, Alexander Melville (1819-1922) of Edinburgh. Teacher of elocution. Practised a system of visible speech, by which deaf-mutes could be taught to speak. Was the father of Alexander Graham Bell.

Bell, Andrew (1753-1832) of St Andrews. Clergyman and philanthropist. While superintendent of an orphanage school in Madras he introduced the system of 'Monitor assistants' which was later universally adopted.

Bell, Sir Charles (1774-1842) of Edinburgh. Anatomist and surgeon. Discovered the function of sensory and motor nerves. Facial paralysis, known as 'Bell's Palsy' is named after him.

Bell, John (1681-1780) of Stirlingshire. Traveller and physician to Russian and Persian Embassies (1715-18) and to China through Siberia (1719-22).

Bell, Sir John (1782-1876) of Fifeshire. General who distinguished himself in the Peninsular War. From 1828 to 1841 he was Chief Secretary to the Governor of the Cape of Good Hope. He was Lieut.-Governor of Guernsey (1848-52).

Bell, John E. (1886-) of Edinburgh. Vice-Consul at Paris (1911), Boston (1912), Belgian Congo (1913-14), Magellans, Chile (1915-19), Santa Domingo (1920), Bahia, Brazil (1930-32), Basle (1932-34). Con-sul at Galveston, USA (1920-23), Portland, Oregon (1923-29). Consul General at Cologne (1934-39), Zurich (1939-42) and Strasburg (1945-46).

Bell, John Joy (1871-1934) of Glasgow. Novelist. His Wee MacGregor (1902) humorous sketches in Glasgow, sold 250,000 copies.

Bell, Revd Patrick (1799-1869) of Arbroath. Invented a mechanical reaper in 1826. He did not patent his reaper and made no money out of it.

Bell, Harry (1899-) of Aberdeen. Sometime adviser with UNESCO delegation, Florence. Produced many papers and articles on literary, historical and educational subjects.

Bell, Henry (1767-1830) of Torphichan Mill, Linlithgow. Pioneer of steam navigation with the 30 ton steamship Comet, launched in 1812.

BELSCHES
Local: From the barony of Belsches in Roxburghshire. The name has been written Belasis, Belases, Belshes, Belshaes, and Belsches. The family are descended from Ralph de Belasyse in Durham, who was settled there soon after the Conquest.

BENNETT
A contraction of Benedict, from Benedictus, blessed.

Bennett, James Gordon (1795-1873) of Keith. Journalist and editor. Issued the first number of the New York Times in 1835.

Bennett, James Gordon (1841-1918) son and successor of James aforementioned. In 1870 he sent Stanley to find Livingstone and with the Daily Telegraph, financed Livingstone's Congo Journey (1874-78). He also promoted polar explorations, yachting, motoring and storm warnings.

Bennett, John (1893-) of Ratho. Major-General, Director of Medicine and Consulting Physician to the Army (1947-51).

Bennett, Roland A. (1899-) educ. Stornoway and Edinburgh. Major-General, Consulting Physician to the Far East Land Forces (1946-49). Director of Medicine to the Army (1955-59) and Hon. Physician to the Queen (1955-59).

BERTRAM
Fair and pure.

BETHUNE
Local: from the town of Bethune in France. The Scottish branch of the family are descended from Robert de Bethune who came to Scotland in 1165.

BIGGAR
Local: from the town of Biggar in Lanarkshire.

BINNEY
The hill near the water, from bin, a hill, and ea, water.

BINNING
The family bear a wagon in their arms because of one of them having, temp. David II, gone as leader of a party in a wagon, covered with hay, and surprised and taken from the English the Castle of Linlithgow.

BIRNEY
Local: from the parish of Birney in Elginshire.

BLACK
Black, Adam (1784-1874) of Edinburgh. Publisher. Achieved fame through the purchase of the Encylopaedia Britannica in 1872, after Constable's failure, and of Scott's novels from Cadell's representative in 1851.

Black, Sir James (1924-) son of a Fife miner. Professor of Analytical Pharmocology. Inventor of beta-blockers which prevent heart attacks, etc. Based in London he has been described as an immensely gifted man. Has had many awards including the 1988 Nobel Prize for Medicine.

Black, Joseph (1728-99) of Edinburgh. Chemist. He showed that the causticity of lime and the alkalies is due to the absence of fixed air (carbon dioxide) presence in limestone and the carbonates of the alkalies. His fame rests chiefly in the theory of 'Latent heat' (which he evolved).

Black, William (1841-98) of Glasgow. Novelist and journalist. War correspondent during the Austro-Prussian War. He wrote over 30 books.

Blackie, John Stuart (1809-95) of Glasgow. Eminent writer, poet and philologist.

BLACKADER
Local: from the lands of Blackader in Berwickshire - they bear an adder sable for their crest.

BLACKBURN
The black stream.

Blackwell, Alexander (1704-47) of Aberdeen. Adventurer, agriculturist and self-appointed physician. Was beheaded in 1747.

BLACKWOOD
Local: from the lands of Blackwood in Lanarkshire.

BLAIR
A cleared plain, and as this was often the ground selected for combats and battles, Blair came to signify a battle. The family are descended from William de Blair, 1205.

Blair, Sir Chandos (1919-) Lieut.-General. Commanded 4th KAR, Uganda (1959-61), GOC 2nd Div. BAOR (1968-70). Governor of Edinburgh Castle (1972-).

Blair, Robert (1699-1746) of Edinburgh. Divine and theological writer. Author of The Grave (1743, a poem nearly 800 lines long).

Blair, Robert (-d. 1828) of Murchiston, nr. Edinburgh. naval Surgeon. In 1785 was appointed to the newly established Regius Chair of Astronomy at the Univ. of Edinburgh. He was the inventor of fluid-filled achromatic lenses for telescopes.

Blair-KERR, William (Mr Justice Blair-Kerr) (1911-) of Dumblane. Director of Weapons and Engineering, Air Ministry (1958-60). On British Defence Staff Washington (1960-63). Ex-Puisne Judge Supreme Court, Hong Kong.

Blair-OLIPHANT, David N. K. (1911-) of Blairgowrie. Air Vice-Marshal RAF, Vice President (Air) Ordnance Board (1963-).

BOGLE
A goblin.

Bogle, George (1746-81) from near Bothwell. British diplomat selected as Envoy to the Lama of Tibet in 1774. The first Briton to cross the Tsanpu in its upper range. Became a personal friend of the Lama.

BONAR
Local: from Bonare in Perthshire. The family are descended from Sir William de Bonare, Baron of Bonare, temp. William the Lion.

BORROWMEN
A carrier of barrows.

BORTHWICK
Local: from the lands of Borthwick on Borthwick Water in Selkirkshire. The family are descended from Thomas de Borthwick, temp. David II.

The name is of Celtic origin, and is held by a prominent Border family. A Borthwick accompanied Queen Margaret to Scotland in 1061; another rescued his Scottish host from the Saracens and captured back the heart of Robert Bruce The first Lord Borthwick was a hostage for James I.

BOSWELL
Local: from bosch, a wood, and ville, a village. The family was established in Scotland, temp. David I.

An Ayrshire family. James Boswell, the biographer of Dr Samuel Johnson, was born in Edinburgh in 1740 where his father Lord Auchinlock, was a Court of Session judge.

BOWIE, James (c.1790-1836) of Scottish descent, a colonel in the Texas forces and hero of the Alamo. The Bowie knife is named after him, a knife of his own design first used by him in a fight in Mississippi in 1827.

BOWMAN
An archer. The family bear a bow in their arms, and also in their crest.

BOYD
Fair complexioned. The family are descended from Robert, surnamed Boyt on account of his fair complexion, living in 1205; he was the son of Simon the third son of Allan, Lord Stewart of Scotland.

The family was well established in Ayrshire before the reign of Robert Bruce. The Lordship of Boyd was created in 1454 and William, 10th Lord, became Earl of Kilmarnock in 1661. Thomas Boyd was created Earl of Arran in 1467, but was forfeited.

Boyd, Sir John (1891-) of Largs. Brigadier and authority on tropical diseases and bacterial viruses. Hon. Secretary Royal Society of Tropical Diseases.

Boyd, Lachlan M. (1904-) of South Uist. Secretary for African Affairs (1951-55). Minister of Local Government, Uganda (1955-60).

Boyd, Thomas J. L. Stirling (1886-1973) of Edinburgh. Barrister-at-law, Chief Justice, Sarawak (1930-39); Air Ministry (1939-43). Chairman, Works and Traffic Committee, Westminster C.C. (1952-55) and Westminster Health Society (1956-59).

Boyd-ORR, Sir John, 1st Baron (1880-1971) of Kilmaurs, Ayrshire. Physiologist and nutritional expert. Director-General World Food and Agricultural Organization (1945-48). Awarded Nobel prize in 1940.

BOYES
Originally Bois, a wood, a forest.

BOYLE
Probably originally Boyville, from Bouville, a parish near Rouen, France. The Scottish family are descended from Richard Boyle of Kelburn in Ayrshire. The family of De Boyville came from Normandy with William the Conqueror. The Welsh branch were ancestors of the Earls of Cork and Shannon. Hugo de Morville, a cousin of the De Boyvilles, came to Scotland and became Hereditary Great Constable under David I. About 1140, he made over the lands of Kelvin to the De Boyvilles. The male line died out in 1196, and passed through a daughter to the Earls of Galloway. This male line failed in 1234. The Earldom of Glasgow was created for David, Lord Boyle in 1703.

BRANDER
A gridiron.

BRASH
A rash or eruption.

BRECHIN
Local: from the town of Brechin in Forfarshire. Henry Brechin was created Lord Brechin by David I.

BREMNER, James (1784-1856) of Keiss, Caithness. Engineer, shipraiser, designer and constructor of harbours. Was mainly respon-sible and instrumental in refloating the grounded ss Great Britain in Dundrum Bay in 1847.

BREWSTER, Sir David (1781-1868) of Jedburgh. Philosopher, physicist and inventor of great scientific attainments. Invented the Kaleidoscope in 1816 and developed the Stereoscope. Made important discoveries on the polarization of light. Founder of the British Association. 'Brewster's Law' bears his name. Elected Fellow of the Royal Society.

BRICE
Descended from Rev Edward Bruce, a younger son of the Laird of Airth, who settling in Ireland early in the seventeenth century, changed his name to Bryce, since altered to brice.

BRIDIE, James (pen-name of Osborne Henry Navor), (1888-1951) of Glasgow. Author and dramatist. His first London play was The Anatomist (1931). He was for a time Professor of Medicine at Anderson Coll., Glasgow.

BRIMMER
A passionate man, from brim, to be violent.

BRISBANE
A place where courts were held; brys, a trial at law, and bann, a mount; breasban, the royal mount. The family of Brisbane is of considerable antiquity ; the present descendants are in possession of an elbow chair made of oak, having the family arms, with the date 1357 carved on the back. William Brisbane was Chancellor of Scotland in 1332.

Brisbane, Sir Thomas Makdougall (1773-1860) of Largs. General and astronomer. Governor of New South Wales (1851-60). Brisbane, the capital of Queensland is named after him. He built the first Australian observatory.

BRODIE
Local: from the lands of Brodie in Morayshire. The name signifies a precipice. The family are descended from Malcolm, Thane of Brodie, temp. Alexander III.

One of the original Pictish tribes of Moray. The name comes from the Barony of Brodie. Records were destroyed when Brodie House was burned in 1645 by Lord Lewis Gordon. It is known that Michael, Thane of Brodie, held a Charter from Robert Bruce about 1311, erecting the old Celtic Thaneage into a Barony. .

Brodie, George (c. 1786-1867) of East Lothian. Historian, remem-bered for his History of the British Empire from the Accession of Charles I to the Restoration.

Brodie, William (1815-81) of Banff. Sculptor. One of his major works is a statue of Queen Victoria in Windsor Castle.

From earliest times the Clan Brodie was associated with the province of Moray. In the 12th century King Malcolm IV is said to have confirmed their possession of land there, and Michael, Thane of Brodie, received a charter from Robert the Bruce two or three years before the battle of Bannockburn. During the 13th, 14th and
15th centuries the family name appeared frequently in the charters of the period, and John of Brodie assisted the MacKenzies against the MacDonalds at the famous battle of Blair-na-park in 1466. In 1550 Alexander Brodie and over a hundred others were denounced rebels for attacking Alexander Cumming of Altyre.

The family continued prominent in local and national affairs and Alexander Brodie of Brodie, born in 1617, was
a Senator of the College of Justice. He represented the county of Elgin in Parliament from 1643 and in 1649 he
went to Holland from Parliament to treat with Charles II and to arrange for the conditions of his return to Scotland.

He was cited to London by Cromwell to negotiate a union between the two kingdoms, but he avoided employment under the Lord-Protector. He died in 1679. Alexander Brodie of Brodie, born in 1697, was appointed Lord Lyon King at Arms in 1727. He died in 1754. Throughout the long history of the family the Brodies became connected through marriage with many of the greatest families in Scotland. Brodie Castle in Morayshire is the seat of the chief.

BROOKS
A small river.

BROUGHAM, Henry Peter, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux (1778-1868) of Edinburgh. Law reformer, orator, debater and writer on an incredible variety of subjects, including Mathematical and Physical Science, Metaphysics, History, Theology and Romance. Became Lord Chancellor. The Brougham carriage was named after him.

BROWN
Originally Broun, and Le Brun - dark complexioned. The family have been free Barons of Colstoun in Haddingtonshire, since 1116. The family claim descent from the Royal family of France.

Brown, A. B. of Edinburgh. In 1870 patented a servo-motor for the hydraulic steering of ships by steam, air or oil.

Brown, Alexander Crum (1838-1922) of Edinburgh. Chemist who worked on chemical nomenclature and the application of mathematics to chemistry. The rule of substitution of benzine derivatives bears his name. Elected FRS in 1879.

Brown, Sir Arthur Whitten (1886-1948) of Glasgow. Aviator who with Capt. John Alcock made the first direct crossing of the Atlantic by aeroplane in 1919, in a Vickers Vimy bomber.

Brown, George (1790-1865) from near Elgin. General who distinguished himself in the Crimea, in the battle of Alma, and at Sebas-topol.

Brown, George, (1818-80) Scots-born Canadian statesman and journalist. Founded the Toronto Globe in 1844.

Brown, George Douglas (1869-1902) of Ochiltree, Ayrshire. Novelist son of a farmer. Best remembered for his novel The House with the Green Shutters (1901) which was written under the pseudonym 'George Douglas'.

Brown, George Mackay (1922-) of Stromness, Orkney. Poet and short story writer. Published his first vol. of poetry The Storm in 1954. Short story vols. incl. A Calendar of Love (1967) and A Time to Keep (1969).

Brown, John (1722-87) from near Abernethy. Herd-boy and pack-man who studied philosophy and became a preacher in 1750. He was the author of the Self Interpreting Bible.

Brown, John (1735-88) of Berwickshire. Physician. Founder of the 'Brunonian' system of medicine.

Brown, John (c.1825-83) of Crathie, Aberdeenshire. For thirty years was Queen Victoria's personal servant and confidant.

Brown, John of Paisley. About 1840 with William Polson produced a cornflour powder when they were trying to make starch for cloth from maize. Brown and Poison later became part of a world-wide concern with a large range of other food products.

Brown, Robert (1773-1858) of Montrose. Botanist famed for his discovery of the nucleus of living cells. In 1805 he brought home nearly 40,000 species of plants from Australia. It was his discovery in 1827 of the irregular movement of pollen grains and the physical concept known as 'Brownian motion'. Elected FRS in 1811.

Brown, Robert (1842-95) of Camster, Caithness. Botanist, geographer and author. Travelled Greenland, subarctic Canada, West Indies and the Barbary States. His books include The Countries of the World and Science for all.

Brown, Thomas. Scottish engineer who in 1977 invented a computer-linked 3-D electric eye scanner for viewing inside the human body.

Brown, Sir William Scott (1890-1968) of Kelso. Secretary to the Board of Revenue (1924-27) and to the Govt. Public Works Dept., Madras (1935-37). Chief Sec. to the Govt. of Madras (1946-47)

BRUCE
Local: from Bruys in Normandy; Robert de Bruys was one of the followers of William the Conqueror, and received from that monarch grants of ninety-four lordships in Yorkshire; his son Robert de Brus obtained from David I the lands of Annandale, and was the ancestor of the Scottish family of Bruce.

Bruce, Alexander Hugh, 6th Baron Balfour of Burleigh (1849-1921) of Kennet. Statesman, Lord-in-waiting to Queen Victoria. Sec. Board of Trade (1889-92). Described as one of the most outstanding figures of his day in Scottish public life.

Bruce, Sir David (1855-1931) Melbourne-born Scot. Physician and naturalist. Discovered the causes of Malta fever and sleeping sickness. Elected FRS in 1884.

Bruce, James (1730-94) of Kinnaird, Stirlingshire. Explorer in Africa. First to find the source of the Blue Nile. Discovered Tississat Falls in 1770. His Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (1790) was published in 5 volumes. Described as a formidable man, Bruce was 6' 4" in height and strong in proportion, had dark red hair and a very loud voice. He died as a result of tripping and falling downstairs when offering his hand to a lady.

Bruce, Sir John K., (1905-75) Surgeon. Lecturer on surgery in the USA, Canada, Australia, England and Copenhagen. Hon. Surgeon to the Queen in Scotland (1960). He was honoured by many institutions throughout the world.

Bruce, ROBERT THE (1274-1327) of Lochmaben or Turnberry Castle. King of Scotland. Remembered as Scotland's national hero. His memorable defeat of the English at Bannockburn (1314) was remark-able when by his superior generalship he deprived the enemy of their huge numerical advantage.

Bruce, Sir William (-d. 1710) of Kinross. Architect Royal to Charles II. Rebuilt Holyrood (1671-79).

Bruce, William Speirs (1867-1921), of Edinburgh. Naturalist, explorer and lecturer on geography, oceanography and zoology. Leader of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (1902-04) when he discovered part of Coats Island. Took part in many polar and other expeditions and surveys in the Antarctic, Waddell Sea and Spitsbergen (1890-1920).

Sir Robert de Brus, a Norman knight, who accompanied William the Conqueror to England is claimed as the
progenitor of this clan. The connection of the Brus family with Scotland originated when Robert de Brus was companion at arms to Prince David, later King David I, during his stay at the court of Henry I of England. Brus received from King David a grant of the Lordship of Annandale. He resigned his lands to his son at the outbreak of war with England, and at the battle of the Standard in 1138, the elder Brus, who fought on the English side, is said to have taken his son prisoner.
Robert, 4th Lord of Annandale, married a niece of William the Lion, and on this marriage was based the
subsequent claims of the family of Bruce to the throne of Scotland. Robert, 6th Lord of Annandale and 1st Earl
of Carrick, maintained his claims, but fought on the English side at the Battle of Dunbar. He died in 1304. His eldest son Robert, 7th Lord of Annandale and 2nd Earl of Carrick, was born in 1274. He was the famous
King Robert the Bruce, the victor at Bannockburn in 1314, who after a fierce struggle gained the independence
of Scotland acknowledged by the treaty of Northampton in 1328. He died in 1329 at Cardross and was buried in
Dunfermline. His heart which was carried by Sir James Douglas reached Spain on its way to the Holy Land, but
owing to the death of Sir James was brought back to Scotland and buried at Melrose. From the Bruces of Clackmannan are descended the Earls of Elgin.

BRUNTON, Sir Thomas Lauder (1844-1916) of Hiltonshill, Rox-burgshire. Physician and Pharmacologist. His best known clinical con-tribution was the introduction of amyi nitrate in the treatment of angina pectoris.

BRYCE, David (1803-76) of Edinburgh. Architect (Scottish Baronial). Has been described as one of the greatest architects of his age. His honours incl. FRIBA, RSA and Grand Architect for Scotland.

BUCHAN
Local: from the district of Buchan in Aberdeenshire.

Buchan, Alastair F., born in 1918. 3rd son of novelist John Buchan, First Baron Tweedsmuir. Prof. of International Relations at Oxford (1972-). In 1958 became first Director of the Institute of Strategic Studies.

Buchan, Alexander (1829-1907) of Kinnesswood, nr. Kinross. Meteorologist. Pioneer of the Isobar System.

Buchan, John, First Baron Tweedsmuir of Elsfield (1875-1940) of Perth. Author and Statesman. Governor of Canada (1935-40). Best remembered for his novels Prestor John (1910) and The Thirty-nine Steps (1915).

Buchan, Peter (1790-1854) of Peterhead. Printer and ballad collector. His works incl., Gleanings of Scotch, Irish and English, Scarce Old Ballads (1825) and Ancient Ballads and Songs of the North of Scotland (1828).

Buchan, William (1729-1805) ofAncarm, Roxburghshire. Physician. In 1769 he published the first edition of Domestic Medicine or the Family Physician, the first of its kind in this country.

BUCHANAN
Local: from the parish of Buchanan in Stirlingshire. The family are descended from Macoum de Boquhanan, whose name is on the Ragman's Roll, 1296.

Buchanan of Auchmar traces the origin of the clan to Anselan o' Kyan, son of a king of Ulster, who landed in Argyll about the year 1016. For his services against the Danes, so it is said, he received from King Malcolm II
the lands of Bucharian, lying to the east of Loch Lomond. These lands remained in the possession of the family for almost seven centuries until the death of John, 22nd laird of Buchanan, in 1682. Cadets of the clan included the Buchanans of Auchmar, Spittal, Arnprior, Drumikill, Carbeth and Leny, and the chiefship passed ultimately to the Leny branch. The clan bore their full share of the military operations of their country. They supported Bruce in his struggle for Scottish independence and the clan was represented in the 7000 men sent from Scotland to assist the French king after the Battle of Agincourt. It is claimed that Sir Alexander Buchanan killed the Duke of Clarence at the Battle of Bauge in 1421. The chief of the clan and Buchanan of Leny fell at Flodden in 1513. The clan took an active part in the Battles of Pinkie and Langside.

The Buchanan lands were sold in 1682 and the principal line became extinct in 1762 following the death of the
22nd chief. The chiefship then passed to Buchanan of Spittal.

George Buchanan, the famous Latin scholar, was born in 1506. Educated at St. Andrews and Paris, he was
imprisoned at the instance of Cardinal Beaton, but escaped to France. He was tutor to Mary Queen of Scots, and was afterwards moderator of the General Assembly, and tutor to James VI. From 1570 till 1578 he was Keeper of the Privy Seal. He died in 1582.

Buchanan, Francis Hamilton (1762-1879) of Callander, Perthshire. Surgeon, agriculturist, botanist and zoologist. Was founder of India's first zoo. He carried out extensive route surveys across Mysore, Canara and Malabar in 1800, and later in Bengal and Bahar. His last post in India was Superintendent of Calcutta Botanical Gardens. Was a fellow of the Royal Society.

Buchanan, George (1506-82) of Killearn. Historian and scholar. Tutor to Mary, Queen of Scots (1562) and to Montaigne and James VI. Described as the most distinguished British humanist of his day, and had a reputation throughout Europe.

BURN
A brook.

BURNS, Sir George (1795-1890) of Glasgow. Philanthropist , founder of the Cunard Shipping Company with his brother James.

Burns, Henry S. Mackenzie (b. 1900-) of Aberdeen. Director Shell Oil Co. Inc., New York (1947) and of US Petroleum Instil (1947-60).

Burns, James (1789-1871) of Glasgow. Brother of Sir George and founder of the Cunard Shipping Company.

Burns, Robert (1759-96) of Alloway, near Ayr. Scottish Natic Bard of world-wide fame. One of the greatest of all writers of 1 songs. His vitality of expression was extraordinary. His works appea at least 37 languages, incl. Russian, Chinese and Punjabi.

Burns, William (b. 1884-) of Montrose. Economic Botanist to Bombay Govt. (1908), Principal, Poona College of Agricult (1922-32), Director of Agriculture, Bombay (1932-36) and Agricult Commissioner to the Govt. of India (1939-45).

Burns, William (b. 1909-) of Stonehaven. Professor of Phys ogy, Charing Cross Hospital Medical School (1947-). Member of Physiological Society, the Ergonomics Research Soc. and the Brii Assoc. for the Advancement of Science.

Burns, William C. (1815-68) of Forfarshire. Missionary to Chi Universally regarded as having

BURNSIDE
The banks of a brook.

BURNETT
A little brook. The family is of Saxon origin, but the Scottish branch have been seated for more than five centuries in the north of Scotland, and are descended from Robert Burnard, 1128. They bear a hunting horn in their arms, indicative of their office of king's foresters in the north.

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