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Scottish Surnames, Caddell to Cuthbertson

CADDELL
Warlike.

CADELL, Francis (1822-79) of Cockenzie. Explorer in Australia. Ex-plored the Murray River. He was murdered by his crew.

CADER
A keep, a fortress, a stronghold.

CAIRD, Edward (1835-1908) of Greenock. Idealist and philosopher. Master of Balliol Coll., Oxford (1893-1907). Best known for his monumental commentary The Critical Philosophy of Immanual Kent (1889).

CAIRD, John (1820-98) of Greenock. Brother of Edward. Preacher and writer. His 'Religion in Common Life', preached before Queen Victoria at Crathie in 1855, was said to have been the greatest single sermon of the century.

CAIRNCROSS, Sir Alexander K. (1911-) of Lesmahagow. Economist. Master of St Peter's Coll., Oxford (1969-).

CAIRNE
A circular mound of stones.

CALDER
Local : from the village of Calder in ;Nairnshire. The family are descended from Hugh son of Alexander Calder, 1440.

Calder, George (1894-) educated in Edinburgh. Private secretary to successive Parliamentary Under-secretaries of State (1927-33), Under-secretary. Board of Trade (1946), Directing Staff Imperial Defence College (1948), UK Commissioner British Phosphate Commissioners (1952-64).

Calder, James (1894-) educated in Glasgow. Judge, Supreme Court and Legal Adviser, Tregganu (1938-39). Chief Sec. to Govt. of North Borneo (1946-53) and Acting Governor N. Borneo (1946-52).

Calder, James Tait (1794-1864) of Castletown, Caithness. Teacher. Author of Sketch of the Civil and Traditional History of Caithness from the Tenth Century.

Calder, James W. (1914-) of Hamilton. Civil engineer. Chief In-spector of mines and quarries (1970-). CALDER, Sir Robert (1745-1818) of Muirtown, Morayshire. Admiral. Was Captain of the Fleet at the battle of Cape St Vincent.

CALDERWOOD
Local: from the lands of Calderwood in the parish of Kilbride, Lanarkshire. The family were seated at Calderwood at a remote period. The last of the family were three brothers and a sister; and the former having quarreled with the priest of the parish fled to the Earl of Cassilis for protection, who gave them the farms of Peacockbank, and Moss-side, in the parish of Stewarton, and the Forty acre lands in Kyle. These three brothers were the ancestors of the present families of Calderwood. The sister remained in Kilbride, married a Maxwell, and became possessed of her father's estate.

CALDWELL
From colwold, the hazel wood.

Caldwell, Sir Dick (1909-) of Edinburgh? Surgeon Vice-Admiral. Executive Director Medical Council on Alcoholism. Was Medical Director-General of the Royal Navy (1966-69).

CALLENDER
Local; from the village of Callender in Perthshire.

CAMERON
Crooked nose, from cam, crooked, and sron, a nose. The clan have a tradition that their ancestor was a younger son of one of the Kings of Denmark, who assisted at the restoration of Fergus II, in 404, and was called Cameron from his crooked nose. Allan surnamed Mac Ochtry, or son of Uchtred, is mentioned by tradition as the chief of the Camerons in the time of Robert II. As far back as can be traced the clan had its seat in Lochabar, and appear to have been first connected with the house of Islay in the time of Robert Bruce, from whom Angus Og received a grant of Lochabar. The clan's more modern possessions of Lochiel and Locharkaig, on the west side of the Lochy, were granted by the Lord of the Isles to the founder of the clan Ranald, from whose descendants they passed to the Camerons. The clan appears to have been originally divided into three Septs: The Camerons or Mac Martins of Letterfinlay; The Camerons or Macguillonies of Strone;
and The Camerons or Macsorlies of Glennevis. The Camerons of Strone were the ancestors of those of Lochiel, Donald Dhu, grandson of Allan Mac Ochtry, headed the clan at the battle of Harlaw in 1411. From this Donald Dhu the Camerons received their patronymic of Mac Dhonnill Duibh, or Mac Connel Duy, the son of Black Donald.

Cameron, Charles of Glasgow. Chemist who in 1820 invented apparatus for producing soda water.

Cameron, Charles (c. 1740-1812) Scottish architect. In 1779 Empress Catherine invited him to Russia. He decorated the Royal Palace, Tsarskoye Selo, and built a palace at Baturin. In 1800 he was appointed Chief Architect to the Russian Admiralty.

Cameron, Sir David Young (1865-1945). Etcher and landscape painter.

Cameron, (Mark) James Walter (1911-85) Scotsman born in France. Journalist and author. Granada award Journalist of the Year (1965), Granada award Foreign Correspondent of the Decade (1965) and Hannan Swaffer award winner for Journalism (1966). His books include A Touch of the Sun (1950) Witness in Vietnam (1966) and What a way to run a Tribe (1968).

Cameron, John (d. 1446). Bishop of Glasgow and Chancellor of Scotland. In 1424 he was appointed secretary to King James I. Keeper of the Privy Seal (1425) and Keeper of the Great Seal (1427).

Cameron, Neil, The Lord Cameron of Balhousie (1920-) of Perth. Marshal of the Royal Air Force (Retd.) Asst. Chief of Defence Staff (Policy) in 1968. Senior Air Staff Officer, Air Support Command (1970-76), Chief of Air Staff (1976-77) and Supreme Chief of Defence Staff (1977-79). President of the British Atlantic Committee and Prin-cipal of King's Coll., London 1979- .

Cameron, Roderick D. (1893-) of Inverness-shire. Major-General Director of Medical Services, British Army of the Rhine (1950-53).

Cameron, Thomas W. R. (1894-) of Glasgow. Became Professor of Parasitology at McGill Univ., Montreal. Produced numerous papers on diseases of animals in relation to man.

Cameron, Veney Lovett (1844-94). Explorer in Africa. Born in Dorset of Scottish descent. First to cross Africa from east to west.

CAMPBELL
Crooked mouth, from cam, crooked, and beul, the mouth. The family can be traced to the beginning of the fifth century, and are said to have been possessed of Lochore in Argyleshire in the time of Fergus II. Sir Colin Campbell of Lochore, temp. Robert Bruce, was called Sir Colin More, or great.

Sir Colin Campbell of Lochawe was recognised by the King of Scotland in 12^2 as one of the principal barons of Argyll. The name is derived from the Gaelic 'Cam-beul' or 'crooked mouth', and the Gaelic clan name is 'Clann na Duibhne', which derives from a Diarmid O'Duine of Lochawe.

Sir Colin's son, Sir Neil, was a staunch supporter of Robert Bruce, and was awarded extensive grants of land. The Campbells of Strachur claim descent from Sir Colin's brother, and from his younger son came the Campbells of Loudoun. From a younger son of Sir Neil came the
Campbells of Inverawe. The Campbells of Glenorchy (Breadalbane) extended Campbell influence eastwards until it embraced Loch Tay; they became Earls of Breadalbane in 1677, Marquesses in 1831. The Breadalbanes added to their possessions to the detriment of Clan Gregor. Eventually the Chief of Glenorchy could travel from the east end of Loch Tay to the coast of Argyll without leaving his own land.

Muriel, daughter of the 7th Thane of Cawdor, married Sir John Campbell, 3rd son of Argyll, in 1510. When she died, she settled the Thanedom on her grandson, John, hence the Campbells of Cawdor. In the mid-fifteenth century the Campbells of Lochawe became Earls of Argyll. As the power of the MacDonald Lords of the Isles declined, the Campbells benefited. Argyll acquired Knapdale and Kintyre, and the last great acquisition of land took place in the late seventeenth century when Mull, Morven, Coll and Tiree were added to Argyll lands, wrested from the bankrupt Macleans. The titles in the grant of 1701 by which the Earl of Argyll was created a Duke reflect clan territory at its greatest extent, 'Duke of Argyll, Marquess of Kintyre and Lorn, Earl Campbell and Cowal, Viscount Lochow and Glenyla, Lord Inveraray, Mull, Morvern and Tiree'. He was, in addition, Heritable Sheriff of Argyll and Grand Master of the Household in Scotland and Keeper of the castles of Dunstaffnage, Tarbert and Dunoon.

Campbell, Angus. A Scotsman who in 1889 invented a spindle-type cotton-picking machine.

Campbell, Sir Archibald (1739-91) of lnverneil. General. Sometime Governor of Jamaica and Madras. Buried in Westminster Abbey.

Campbell, Sir Charles (1865-1911) of St Andrews. Vice-Admiral. Distinguished himself in many campaigns.

Campbell, Charles A. (1897-1974) of Glasgow? Emeritus Professor of Logic and Rhetoric, Glasgow Univ. (1961-). Was Professor of Philosophy at the Univ. of North Wales, Bangor (1932).

Campbell, Colin (1687-1757). Helped to found the Swedish East India Company. Was made a Noble of Sweden in 1731.

Campbell, Colin-Baron Clyde (1792-1863) of Glasgow. The son of a carpenter who became a Field-Marshal. Commanded the 'Thin Red Line' at Balaclava. Was Commander in Chief during the Indian Mutiny (1757-58). Is described as the hero of the Indian Mutiny. Made a Freeman of the City of London in 1860.

Campbell, Sir Colin M. 8th Baronet (1925-) ofDunblane. President of the Federation of Kenya Employers (1962-70), Chairman of the Tea Board of Kenya (1961-67) and of the East African Tea Trade Assoc. (1960-63 and 1966-67).

Campbell, Sir David (1889-) of Ayr? Regius Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Univ. of Aberdeen (1930-59), Dean of the Faculty of Medicine (1932-39) and President of the Medical Council (1949-61).

Campbell, Eric (1870-1917). Actor of Scottish descent who played the bullying heavy in some of Charlie Chaplin's most famous short films in 1916-17: Easy Street, The Cure, The Adventurer, etc.

Campbell, Ewen (1897-) of Edinburgh? Chairman Executive Committee, Scottish Red Cross Soc. Governor of Kordofan Province (1938-59).

Campbell, lan M. (1915-) of Glasgow? Professor of Humanity, Univ. of Edinburgh 1959-. Prof. of Latin, Univ. Coll. of South Wales and Monmouthshire (1954-59).

Campbell, lan Ross, born of Scottish parents in 1900, educ. Australia. Major-General. Commander of Australian Forces in Korea and Japan (1951-53).

Campbell, John, 1st Baron (1779-1861) of Fifeshire. Legal Biographer, Lord Chief Justice, Lord Chancellor (1859). Inaugurated im-portant legal reforms.

Campbell, John D. Sutherland, 9th Duke of Argyll (1845-1914). Governor-General of Canada (1878-83).

Campbell, of Canna, John Lome, (1906-) of the Isle of Canna, Inner Hebrides. Folklorist, editor and author. Published many works in Gaelic.

Campbell, John M. (1887-), educ. Edinburgh and Canada. Dental Historian and Surgeon. Published a number of articles and books on Dentistry.

Campbell, Sir Patrick (1773-1841) of Argyllshire. Vice-Admiral, Commander in Chief at Cape of Good Hope (1834-37).

Campbell, Robert R. (1902-) of Edinburgh. Artist, writer, lecturer and broadcaster on Art. Director of the National Gallery of South Australia (1951-67).

Campbell, Thomas (1777-1844) of Glasgow. Poet of renown. 'Hohenlinden', 'Ye Mariners of England' and 'The Battle of the Baltic' are among the best known of his poems. One of the founders of Univ. Coll., London. He is buried in Westminster Abbey.

Campbell, Thomas (1790-1858) of Edinburgh. Sculptor. Exhibited various works in the Royal Academy, London.

Campbell-BANNERMAN, Sir Henry (1846-1908) of Glasgow. Prime Minister of Great Britain (1905-08)

CARGILL, Donald (1619-81) of Rattray, Perthshire. Minister and Covenanter. Was deprived of his living for opposing the Restoration (1660). Fought at Bothwell Bridge (1679), took part in the Sanquhar Declaration (1680) after which he excommunicated the King at Tor-wood, Stirling. He was executed in Edinburgh.

CARGILL, Dame Helen W. of Edinburgh. Air Commandant. Matron-in-Chief Princess Mary's RAF Nursing Service (1948-52).

CARLYLE
Local: from the city of Carlisle in Cumberland. Hildred de Karleolo was the owner of lands in Cumberland, on which the city of Carlisle now stands. His descendant, Adam de Karleolo, accompanied William de Bruce, Lord of Annandale, to Scotland, in 1170, and received from him a grant of the lands of Kynemound in Dumfriesshire; and was the ancestor of the Scottish branch of the family.

Carlile, Wilson (1847-1942), born at Brixton, of Scottish descent. Founder of the Westminster Mission from which the Church Army developed.

Carlyle, Thomas (1795-1881) of Ecclefechan. Writer, essayist and lecturer. Sometime described as a literary genuis of the highest order.

CARMICHAEL
Local: from the barony of Carmichael in Lanarkshire. The family are descended from William de Carmichael, temp. David Bruce. Sir John Carmichael of Carmichael accompa-nied Archibald Earl of Douglas to the assist-ance of Charles VI of France; he distinguished himself in the battle of Beauge by dismounting the Duke of Clarence, the English general, in doing which he broke his lance, and thus originated the crest of the family.

Carmichael, Edward A. (1896-) of Edinburgh. Neurologist. Sometime Director of Neurological Research Unit, London.

Carmichael, Sir John (1920-) of St Andrews? Chairman Sudan Light and Power (1952-54), Financial and Economic Adviser to the Sudan Govt. (1955-59) and Chairman Herring Industry Board (1962-).

CARNEGIE
Local: from the lands of Carnegie in Forfarshire. The family were originally proprietors of the lands of Balinaird in Forfarshire, but in the time of David II, John de Balinaird having obtained a grant of the lands of Carne-gie, changed his surname. The name derives from the lands of 'Carryneggy' or Carnegie in Angus, confirmed by David II on John de Balinhard in 1358. The direct line of the Carnegies of that Ilk expired in 1563 and from Duthae de Carnegie, 2nd son of John, derives the House of Southesk. Sir David Carnegie was created Earl of Southesk by Charles I in 1633: The estates and title were forfeited after the Jacobite rising of 1715, but they were later recovered. The Earldom of Northesk was assumed in 1666 by John, younger brother of the 1st Earl of Southesk, and previously Earl of Eathie.

Carnegie, Andrew (1835-1918) of Dunfermline. Iron and steel industry tycoon and philanthropist. Made his vast fortune in America. Said to have given away 100 million. He is reported as having said that it would be a disgrace to die wealthy.

Carnegie, William (Lord Northesk). Admiral, third in command to Nelson at Trafalgar, and later became First Sea Lord. Buried in St Paul's beside Nelson and Collingwood.

CARR
Vide, Kerr.

CARRUTHERS
The family are descended from William Carruthers of Howmains in Annandale, temp. David II.

CARSON
The son of Carr, or Kerr.

CARSTAIRS, George Morrison, (1916-) born in Mussoorie, India of Scottish descent. President of the World Federation of Mental Health (1967-71).

CARSTAIRS, William (1649-1715) of Cathcart. Minister and politician. Friend confidant and adviser of William of Orange. Spent several years intriguing against Charles II and was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle (1674-79). Later became Chaplain to William of Orange.

CASKIE, Revd Donald C. (-d. 1983) of Islay. Best known as the 'Tartan Pimpernel' for his exploits with the French Resistance in World War II. He helped large numbers of allied servicemen to escape from Nazi-occupied Europe. Was betrayed, arrested and tortured by the Gestapo. Was minister in the Scots Kirk in Paris for 25 years.

CASSE
To oppose.

CATHCART
Local: from the parish of Cathcart in Renfrewshire. The parish is situated where the river Cart runs through a narrow channel, and caeth signifies a strait; whence the name has originated. The family are descended from Sir Reynold de Kathcart, a Crusader, temp. Richard I.

CAY
A place of security, a warden or keeper; they bear in their arms a griffin's head erased, in the beak a key azure.

CHALMERS
One of the clan Cameron going to France, put his name into a Latin dress by calling himself Camerario, which in French is de la Chambre; upon his return home he was, according to Scottish dialect, called Chalmers. The arms of the family were cut on stone and wood in St. Nicholas' church at Aberdeen, with the dates 1313 and 1413.

Chalmers, Alexander (1759-1834) of Aberdeen. Biographer and editor. Studied medicine but turned to journalism. Edited newspapers in London and wrote prefaces for new editions of English classics. Famous for his General Biographical Dictionary in 32 vols. (1812-17).

Chalmers, George (1742-1825) of Fochabers, Moray. Antiquary and writer. His great work was Caledonia, a history and topographical account of Scotland.

Chalmers, George Paul (1833-78) of Montrose. Painter who was in early life a surgeon's errand boy and later a ship chandler. His paintings The Legend and A Quiet Cup are both in Edinburgh National Gallery.

Chalmers, James (1782-1853) of Arbroath. Bookseller in Dundee who invented adhesive postage stamps in 1834, the round one penny stamp.

Chalmers, James (1841-1901) of Ardrishaig. Missionary to New Guinea. He was murdered and eaten by Goari Bari islanders.

Chalmers, Dr Thomas, (1780-1847) of Anstruther, Fife. Preacher, theologian and economist. He began preaching at the age of 19 and became one of the most influential preachers of the nineteenth century. Obtained through his influence, contributions for the erection of 200 churches. He founded the Free Church in 1843.

Chalmers, William J. (1914-) of Inverness ? Secretary and Director-General, Commonwealth War Graves Commission (1956-).

CHAMBERS
Vide Chalmers.

Chambers, Robert (1802-71) of Peebles. Writer and amateur geologist. Published the first book in English on evolution Vestages of the National History of Creation (1844).

Chambers, William (1800-83) of Peebles. Publisher with his brother Robert. Co-founders of the Chambers' Journal.

CHAPMAN
A shopkeeper, a trader.

CHARTERIS. The family are descended from Robert de Charteris, temp. Malcolm IV. Francis, 2nd son of Earl of Wemyss succeeded to estates and peerage when his elder brother, Lord Elcho, was attainted for his part in the '45 Rising. He took the name and arms of
Charteris of Amisfield under entail. The Wemyss Estates and arms, however, devolved to the 3rd son of the 5th Earl, as James Wemyss of Wemyss.

Clan Chattan. The name of this Clan comes from Gillichattan Mor, the 'Great Servant of St Catan' of the ancient Culdee Church, who lived on Bute. By the twelfth century, the descendants of the Saint's family and followers had spread to Glenloy and Locharkaig in Lochaber. In the 7th generation Eva, an only child, married Angus, 6th of Mackintosh in 1291. They were compelled to flee from Lochaber for safety, and settled in Rothiemurchus where the Mackintoshes had already been established for 150 years. From this time dates the emergence of the great Clan Chattan confederation.

In time the clans 'of the blood' of the old Clan Chattan — Macpherson, Cattanach, MacBean, MacPhail, Mackintosh, Shaw, Farquharson, Ritchie, and MacThomas, were joined by other clans seeking protection, Macgillivray, Davidson, Maclean of Dochgarroch, Macintyre in Badenoch, Macqueen, Gow and Clark.

For nearly five centuries, the Clan Chattan was a force to be reckoned with, holding lands which extended from Inverness to Laggan in the Upper Spey Valley.

CHEYNE
An oak tree - from chene.

Cheyne, James (1895-) of Aberdeen ? Administrative Officer in Tanganyika Territory (1918), Provincial Commissioner (1941), Sec. for African Affairs (1948) and Member of Local Govt., Tanganyika Territory (1950-51).

CHISHOLM
Descended from Harald Chisholm, Thane of Orkney, Caithness and Shetland. He was a scion of the Royal Stock of Norway, and married the daughter of Mached, Earl of Athol, the last male descendant of Donald Ban, King of Scotland. The clan are called in the North, An Siosalach.

Found in Roxburghshire and originally spelled De Chesholm. The original Border seat was the Barony of Chisholme; the later line of Scott-Chisholrne died out in 1899. In the fourteenth century, Alexander de Chesholm, son of Sir Robert de Chisholme, Constable of Urquhart Castle, (married Margaret, Lady of Erchless, daughter and heiress of Wyland of the Aird. Their son, Thomas de Chisholm, born 1403, is forebear of the Chisholms of Comar and Strathglass, later called 'Chisholm of Chisholm'.

Chisholm, Sir A. Robert (1897-) Became Managing Director, Im-perial Bank of India.

Chisholm, Alexander H. (1890-), born in Victoria of Scottish parents. Chief Editor Australian Encyclopaedia. Adviser on Fauna and Protection to Queensland Govt. President Royal Australian Historical Society.

Chisholm, Eric of Glasgow. Composer and Conductor. In 1945 he was appointed Professor of Music at Cape Town.

Chisholm, George (1916-) of Bridgeton, Glasgow. Musician and funnyman. Sometime voted Britain's top jazz trombonist.

Chisholm, Ronald G. (1910-) of Inverness. British Deputy High Commissioner to Eastern Nigeria (1963). UK Delegate to International Sugar Conference (1953). Deputy High Commissioner for UK in Madras(1957-60).

CHRISTIE
A diminutive of Christopher, which signifies Christ's carrier.

Christie, James, (1750-) of Perth. Founder of 'Christies' the world famous fine art auctioneers. Having resigned his commission in the RN he went to London and established his own auctioneering business in Pall Mall in 1766.

CHRISTISON, Sir Robert (1797-1882) of Edinburgh. Toxicologist and physician. Wrote a treatise on poisons in 1828. Appointed Physician to Queen Victoria in 1848.

CLAPPERTON, Hugh (1788-1827) of Annan. Explorer in Africa. Died in his attempt to discover the source of the Nile.

CLAPPERTON, Thomas J. (1879-1962) of Galashiels. Sculptor. The Bruce at Edinburgh Castle, The Border Reiver in Galashiels, Bishop Morgan, Cardiff, and a number of war memorials were his work.

CLARK, Sir Andrew (1826-93) of Wolfhill, near Cupar-Angus. Physician. Described as one of the most distinguished doctors of his day. Physician to London Hospital (1854-). A great authority on lung diseases.

CLARK, George Aitken (1823-73) of Paisley. Threadmaker (in Paisley and America) and philanthropist.

CLARK, James (Jim) (1936-68) of Chirnside, Berwickshire (born in Kilmany, Fife). Motor racing driver, twice world champion. Considered by many, the greatest of all time Grand Prix drivers. Won 25 G.P. races.

CLARKE, Alexander (1828-1914). Geodesist. Remembered for his work on the principal triangulation of the British Isles, and for his book Geodesy (1880).

CLEGHORN
Local: from Cleghorn in Lanarkshire.

CLELAND
Local: From the lands of Cleland in Lanarkshire. James Cleland of that ilk was the associate of Wallace, and received from Robert Bruce several lands in the barony of Calder. He was the ancestor of William Cleland of that ilk, who by Jean his wife, daughter of "William Lord Somerville, was progenitor of the Clelands of Cleland, Faskine, Monkland, and Cartness. The family arms are derived from the office they held of hereditary foresters to the Earls of Douglass.

CLERK
A clergyman. The family are descended from Alanus Clerk, living in 1349. The family estate of Pennycuick is held by a singular tenure, the proprietor being bound to sit upon a large rock called the Buckstane, and wind three blasts of a horn, when the king comes to hunt upon the Borough Muir, near Edinburgh. Hence the crest, and the motto: " Free for a blast."

Clerk, Sir Dugald (1854-1932) of Glasgow. Inventor of the two-stroke motorcycle engine. He was Director of the National Gas Engine Co., and Director of Engineering Research for the Admiralty (1916).

Clerk, John (1728-1812) of Penicuik. Writer on Naval tactics. Pub-lished in 1790, fifty copies of his Essay on Naval Tactics, and it is believed that Rodney owed his West Indies successes to it.

CLUNIES-ROSS, John (c. 1786-1854) of Weisdale, Shetland. Adven-turer, sailor and philosopher. Uncrowned king of Cocos Keeling Is-lands, given to him about 1827, and his descendants, by Queen Victoria. The islands were sold to Australia in 1978.

COCHRAN
Local: From the barony of Cochran in Renfrewshire. The family are descended from Walden de Cochran, temp. Alexander III.

COCHRANE, Sir Ralph (1895-) of Cults, Aberdeenshire. Air Chief Marshal. Seconded to New Zealand Govt. to advise on air defence. First C in C of RNZAF (1936-39). ADC to the King (1939-40). Held various important appointments in Intelligence and Training in the RAF.

Name taken from 'Five-Merk' land of Cochrane (Coueran), near Paisley in Renfrewshire. Waldeve de Cochrane witnessed a charter in favour of the 5th Earl of Menteith in 1262. The family was raised to the peerage in 1647.

A traditional military family, but Archibald, 9th Earl of Dundonald was a scientist and inventor, and Thomas, 10th Earl, served in the Royal Navy and later commanded the Chilean, Peruvian, Brazilian and Greek navies in the nineteenth century.

COCHRANE, Thomas, 10th Earl Dundonald (1775-1860) of Annsfields, Lanarkshire. Admiral. Secured the independence of Chile, Peru and Brazil (1819-25).

COOK
The family bear a cock gules in their arms, whence probably the name.

COCKBURN
The hill by the brook, from cock, a hill, and burn, a brook. The family are descended from Thomas de Cockburn, temp. Robert Bruce, their arms are argent, three cocks gules; crest, a cock crowing; motto, "Accendit cantu."

Name derived from a place near Duns, Berwickshire. The were ancient vassals of the Earls of March and ancestors of Cockburns of Langton, Ormiston and Clerkington. David II conferred the Barony of Carriden in West Lothian on Sir Alexander de Cockburn and Alexander Cockburne was Keeper of the Great Seal. Admiral Cockburn conveyed Napoleon to St Helena.

Cockburn, (nee Rutherford) Alicia or Alison (1713-94) of Fair-nalie, Selkirkshire. Poetess remembered for her poem 'The Flowers of the Forest'. A different poem from the lament for Flodden with the same title by Jean Elliot.

Cockburn, Henry T. (Lord Cockburn) (1779-1854) of Cockpen or Edinburgh. Judge and author. Shared with Jeffrey the leadership of the Bar. A zealous supporter of parliamentary reform.

COLLINS, William (1789-1853) of Eastwood, Renfrewshire. Publisher and founder in 1820 of the famous firm of that name in Glasgow. He was one of the first to publish school textbooks.

COLLISONE
The son of Colin - cuilein, darling.

COLQUOHOUN
Local: from the lands of Colquhoun, which were granted by Alexander II to Umphred de Kirkpatrick, whose son was styled Ingelram de Colquhoun, and was the ancestor of the family.

A territorial name taken f'om the Barony of Colquhoun in Dunbartonshire. The founder of the family was Humphrey de Kilpatrick or Kirkpatrick, who obtained a grant of the lands in the reign of Alexander II. Lands of Luss acquired during late fourteenth century by marriage to the 'Fair Maid of Luss', a descendant of Maldwin, Dean of the Lennox in 1150.

Colquhoun, Robert (1914-62) of Kilmarnock. Artist. His works are usually presented in colour shades of reds and browns.

COLVILLE
The town in the defile - from col, a defile, and ville, a town. Gilbert de Colavilla or Colvyle was a commander in the army of William the Conqueror; his descendant Philip de Colvill, temp. "William the Lion, was the founder of the Scottish branch of the family.

Colville, David (1813-97) of Campbelltown. Founder of Colville's Steel Works, Glasgow. In 1879 he built five of the largest Siemens furnaces and at once gained a world-wide reputation. In 1880 he contracted to supply the iron bars for the rebuilding of the Tay bridge.

COMBE
The family bear three combs argent in their arms, whence probably the name.

Combe, Andrew, (1797-1847) of Edinburgh. Physician, Judge and author of several works on Phrenology and Physiological Science. Physician to Queen Victoria (1838).

Combe, George (1788-1858) of Edinburgh. Brother of Andrew. Eminent philosopher and author who first introduced Phrenology to Britain. His chief work was The Constitution of Man (1828).

COMFORT, Charles F. (1900-) of Edinburgh. Artist and author. Di-rector of the National Galleries of Canada (1959-).

CONAN DOYLE, Sir Arthur (1859-1930) of Edinburgh. Novelist and writer of detective stories and historical romances. Originator of 'Sher-lock Holmes'. He was a spiritualist.

CONAN DOYLE, Dame Jean, daughter of Sir Arthur. Appointed Director of the Women's Royal Air Force in 1963.

CONGALTON
The family are descended from William de Congalton of that ilk, temp. William the Lion.

CONNERY, Sean (1930-) of Edinburgh. Actor. Star of many great films in the personification of James Bond the lan Fleming character. Won an Oscar for his part as a Cop in The Untouchables. In 1990 was voted the world's no. 1 sex symbol.

CONSTABLE, Archibald (1774-1827) of Carnbee, Fife. Publisher. In 1812 he purchased the copyright of the Encyclopaedia Britannica for over 13,000.

COOPER
Local: from the town of Cupar in Fifeshire. The family are descended from Simon Cooper, 1296.

COLLIER
This name was assumed by an ancestor of the family, because when hotly pursued by his enemies he hid himself in a coal pit.

COOK, Capt. James (1728-79) born at Marton, Yorkshire, son of a Scottish (Roxburgh) farm labourer. Naval officer, explorer and scientific navigator. Charted the East coast of Australia and named it New South Wales. He mapped much of the Southern Hemisphere and discovered the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islands where he was killed.

CORRIE
Local: from the town of Corrie in the Isle of Arran.

COUTTS, Frederick (1899-) of Aberdeenshire. General of the Salva-tion Army (1963-69).

COUTTS, Thomas (1735-1822) of Edinburgh. Banker. Founder of the London Banking House of Coutts & Co., with his brother James.

COWAN
A blacksmith.

CRAICK
To storm - their arms are, per fesse argent and sable, a ship or, sails of the first; crest, an anchor proper ; motto, " Providence."

CRAIK, George Lillie (1798-1866) ofKennoway, Fife. Scholar. In 1849 he became Professor of History and English Literature in Queen's Coll., Belfast. He wrote much on literary history.

CRAIG
A rock, a crag.

Craig, William S.R. (1903-) Professor of Paediatrics and Child Health, Univ. of Leeds. Produced various publications on child and adolescent life in health and disease.

CRAIGIE, James (1899-) educated Perth and St Andrews. Member of Scientific Staff, Imperial Cancer Research Fund (1947-64), President Society of American Bacteriologists (1946). Director Mill Hill Laboratories (1949-58).

CRAIGIE, Sir Thomas Alexander (1867-1957) of Dundee. Scholar and Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford (1916-25), of English at Chicago (1925-35). He was joint-editor from 1901 of the New English Dictionary.

CRAM, Alastair L. (Mr Justice Cram) (1909-) educ. Perth and Edin-burgh. Appellate Judge Supreme Court of Appeal, Malawi, (1964-68), Governor-General, Malawi (1965). Athlete, traveller and climber in the Alps, (1930-60), Himalayas (1960), Amazon and Peruvian Andes (1966) and Atlas Mountains (1971).

CRAMOND
Local: from the village of Cramond in Edinburghshire.

Cranston. This family descends from Elfric de Cranston, a Norman who lived in the twelfth century. The Cranstons owned lands in Edinburgh and Roxburghshire. Lordship created in 1609.

CRANSTOUN
Local: from the parish of Cranstoun in Edinburghshire. The family have been long seated on the Border, and their motto, "Ye shall want ere I want," was emblematical of their early calling of freebooters. They are de-scended from Elfric de Cranstoun, temp. William the Lion.

CRAW
A crow. They bear three crows argent in their arms.

CRAWFORD
Local: from the barony of Crawford in Lanarkshire - cru, bloody, and ford, a pass. The family are descended from Reginald de Crawford, living in the beginning of the twelfth century, who was the youngest son of Alan fourth Earl of Richmond.

Surname derived from Barony of Crawford in the Upper Ward of Clydesdale. In 1248, Sir John of that Ilk died leaving two daughters, of whom the eldest married Archibald de Douglas, and the younger married David Lindsay of Wauchopedale, ancestor of the Earls of Crawford and Balcarres. A cadet branch produced Sir Archibald of Loudoun, the Sheriff of Ayr murdered at a
banquet by the English. His sister married Sir Malcolm Wallace of Elderslie, and was mother to the patriot.

Crawford, (David R. S. Lindsay) 28th Earl of (1900-) Premier Earl of Scotland. Deputy Governor, Royal Bank of Scotland (1962-). Chair-man British Fine Arts Commission (1943-47).

Crawford, Hugh Adam (1898-) of Stirlingshire. Artist and portrait painter. RSA 1958.

CRICHTON
The castle of plunder - creachton. The family are descended from William de Crichton, 1240.

Crichton, James (1560-82) of Eliock House, Dumfriesshire. Renowned for his gifts of learning and general accomplishments. Could speak twelve languages before he was 20. J.M. Barrie's play The Admirable Crichton was based on his character. He was killed in a street brawl in Italy.

CROCKETT
Crooked, bent.

Crockett, Samuel Rutherford (1860-1914) of Kirkcudbrightshire. Minister and novelist. The Men of Moss Hags (1895), The Grey Man (1896), Kit Kennedy (1899), The Loves ofMiss Anne (1904) and TheWhite Plumes of Navarre (1909) were among his best known works.

CROLL, James (1821-90) of Little Whitefield. nr. Couper Angus. Physicist. Had only an elementary school education, but in science was wholly self-trained. His works include Climate of Time (1875) and The Philosophical Basis of Evolution (1890).

CROMBIE, George E. (1908-) of Aberdeen. Counsellor and UK High Commissioner, Ottawa (1955-58), British High Commissioner, The Gambia (1965-67).

CROMBIE, Sir Harvey F. (1900-) of Aberdeenshire. Rear-Admiral (Ret.), Senior Officer Minesweepers, N. Russia (1941-43), Director of Minesweeping (1943-46), Flag Officer Scotland and Admiral Superintendent, Rosyth ('51-53).

CRONIN, Archibald Joseph (1896-1981) of Cardross, Dumbartonshire. Doctor, novelist and playwright. His many successes include Hatter's Castle; The Citadel and The Keys of the Kingdom. Creator of the TV serial Dr Finlay's Casebook.

CROSS
The family bear a cross crosslet in their arms, whence probably the name.

CRUDEN, Alexander (1701-70) of Aberdeen. Author and bookseller (in London). Compiled The Complete Concordance of the Holy Scrip-ture, the first great reference work in English, that became the basis for later concordances.

CRUIKSHANK
Crooked legs.

Cruickshank, Andrew J. M. (1907-88) of Aberdeen. Actor. Famous for his personification of the Dr Cameron of A. J. Cronin's Dr Finlay's Casebook.

Cruickshank, Ernest W. H. (1888-) of Edinburgh. Professor of Physiology, Pekin Union Medical College (1920-24), Patna, India (1926-28) and Halifax, N8(1929-35).

Cruickshank, John (1884-) of Glasgow ? Professor of Bacteriology, Aberdeen Univ. (1926-54). Was adviser on Pathology to the 3rd Army in 1917.

Cruickshank, Martin M. (1888-) of Edinburgh. Ophthalmic Specialist in Northern and Western Commands (1921-31), Professor of Surgery, Madras Medical College, and Senior Surgeon and Superintendent, General Hosp. Madras (1934-40), Brigadier and Consultant Surgeon, Southern Army India (1943).

Cruickshank, Robert (1899-) of Aberdeen. Professor of Preventive Medicine, Univ. of West Indies, Kingston (1966-68). Produced various publications on microbiology and immunology, etc.

CRUM, Walter Ewing (1865-1944) of Renfrewshire. Coptic scholar. FBA (1931).

CULLEN
Local: from the town of Cullen in Banffshire - cul, a neck, lin, a lake; the place at the neck of the lake.

Cullen, William (1710-90) of Hamilton, Physician to whom is largely due the recognition of the important part played by the nervous system in health and disease.

Cullen, William (1867-1948) of Shettleston, Glasgow. Chemist and Metallurgist, expert on explosives and mining. Spent some time in the mines of South Africa.

CUMMING
A corruption of Comeyn, anciently de Comminges, from Comminges in France. The badge of the family is the cumin-plant, and their arms are azure three garbs of cumin. They are descended from John Cumyn, Lord of Badenoch, temp. Robert Bruce.

Descended from a Norman noble, Richard Cumyn, the Cummings became powerful in Scotland. In reign of Alexander III, Atholl, Buchan and Menteith were Cumming earldoms. By marriage with the sister of King John Baliol, and by descent from King Duncan, John, Lord
of Badenoch, the 'Red Comyn' had a strong claim to the Scottish throne. After the confrontation with Robert Bruce where 'Red Comyn' was killed, the family declined.

The Comyns of Altyre took over the chiefship and through marriage with the Gordons of Gordounstoun, the name Gordon-Cumming was adopted.

CUNNINGHAME
Local: From the district of Cunninghame in Ayrshire. Malcolm Canmore being hotly pursued by Macbeth took refuge in a barn, where a countryman called Malcolm the son of Friskin, concealed him by forking hay or straw over him; on the accession of Malcolm Canmore to the throne he granted to his deliverer the Thanedom of Cunninghame, and for his arms, argent a shake fork sable, with the motto, " Over fork over."

Cuningham. The family descends from Warnibald, who settled in thedistrict of Cunningham, Ayrshire, in the twelfth century. Harvey de Cunningham received the lands of Kilmaurs from Alexander III after Battle of Largs 1263. Alexander de Cunningham was created Earl of Glencairn by James III in 1488, and was later killed at the Battle of Sauchieburn.

Cunningham, Allan (1784-1842) of Dalswinton, Dumfriesshire. Poet and man of letters. His works include Traditional Tales of the English and Scottish Peasantry (1822) and The Songs of Scotland Ancient and Modern (1825) which contains his famous 'A wet sheet and a flowing sea'.

Cunningham of HYNDHOPE (Andrew Browne Cunningham) 1st Viscount, (1883-1963) of Edinburgh. Admiral in two world wars. C in C Med. (1939-42 and Feb-Oct. 1943). Naval C in C for the Allied as-sault on N. Africa 1942. First Sea Lord (1943-46).

Cunningham, Sir Charles (1906-) of Dundee. Permanent Under-sec. of State, Home Office (1957-66), Deputy Chief UK Atomic Energy Auth. (1966-71). Headed Vassel spy inquiry. Chairman Resettlement Board for Ugandan Asians (1972).

Cunningham, Sir Charles B. (1884-) of Campbelltown. Commissioner of Police, Travancore State (1915-21), Madras (1928) and Inspector-General of Police, Madras (1930-38). Inspector of Constabulary, Home Office (1940-45).

Cunningham William (1849-1919) of Edinburgh. Economist. Taught history at Cambridge and economics at King's Coll., London.

Cunninghame, Graham Robert Boutine (1852-1936). Author and politician. He travelled widely in South America, Spain and North Africa, about which he wrote many books. Became a Liberal MP (1886-92) and leader of the Nationalist movement in Scotland.

CURRAN, Samuel C. (1912-), educ. Wishaw and Cambridge. Prin-cipal, Royal Coll. of Science and Technology, Glasgow (1959-). Chief Scientist, AWRE, Aldermaston (1958-59). An authority on the detec-tion of nuclear radiation. Invented the Scintillation Detector and the modern Proportional Counter.

CURRIE, Finlay (1878-1968) Scottish stage and music hall actor. Made his film debut in 1932 in The Case of the Frightened Lady. Appeared in many great films incl. Treasure Island (1950), Quo Vadis (1951), -Rob Roy (1953) and Ben Hur (1959).

CURRIE, Sir George (1896-) of Banffshire. Vice-Chancellor Univ. of New Zealand. Principal Research Officer, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Australia (1929-39). Published many papers on Scientific research.

CURRIE, James (1756-1805) of Dumfriesshire. Physician. His chief medical work was the able reports on the effects of water on Fibril diseases (1979).

CURRIE, Sir James (1907-) of Glasgow. Commercial Counsellor, Washington (1947). Consul-General Copenhagen, San Paulo and Johannesburg (1952-62).

CURRIE, Robert A. (1905-) of Glasgow. Rear-Admiral (Ret.). Director RN Staff Coll. (1951-52). Chief of Staff to Chairman British Service Mission, Washington (1954-57).

CUTHBERT
Famous, bright, of clear skill, or knowledge.

Cuthbert, Sir John (1902) of Glasgow. Vice-Admiral. Commanded HMS Glasgow (1942), Ajax (1944-46), Vengeance (1949-50). Flag Of-ficer Flotillas, Home Fleet (1953-54). Flag Officer Scotland (1956-58).

CUTHBERTSON, Sir David (1900-) of Kilmarnock. Consultant Di-rector, Bureau of Animal Nutrition (1945-65). Hon. Consultant in Physiology and Nutrition to the Army (1956-65). Published many papers on physiology of protein nutrition and metabolism, etc.

CUTHBERTSON, lain (1930-) of Glasgow. Actor. His films include Up the Chastity Belt, Tom Brown's Schooldays (TV), Budgie (TV series), Scotch on the Rocks (TV) and Sutherland's Law (TV series).

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