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Scottish Surnames, Rae to Ruthven

RAE, Dr John (1813-93) of Stromness, Orkney. Explorer and Arctic traveller. Commanded an expedition (1853-54) to King William's Land. In 1854 he discovered the fate of the Franklin expedition, for which he was awarded 10,000. In 1860 he surveyed a telegraph line to America via Faroes and Iceland, and in 1864 surveyed a telegraph line from Winnipeg over the Rocky mountains. He also mapped the north coast of Canada for the Hudson's Bay Co.

RAE, Sir Robert (1894-). Director of the National Agricultural Advisory Service (1948-59). Agricultural Attache, British Embassy, Washington (1944-45).

RAEBURN, Sir Henry (1756-1823) of Stockbridge, near Edinburgh. Famous artist and portrait painter (RA 1815). Sometimes called the 'Scottish Reynolds'. RAEBURN, John (1833-1909) of Fife. Violin maker, painter, astronomer and poet.

RAINY, Robert (1826-1906). Scottish divine who carried the union (1900) of the Free and United Presbyterian Church as the United Free Church, of which he became the Moderator.

RAIT, Sir Robert Sangster (1874-1945). Born in Leicestershire of Scots parents. Historian who was Historiographer-Royal for Scotland (1919-29).

RALSTON
Local: from the lands of Ralston in Renfrewshire. The family are descended from Ralph, son of Macdutf, Thane of Fife, who obtained a grant of lands in Renfrewshire, which he called Ralphstoun, corrupted to Ralston. The Ralstons of that ilk are mentioned in charters as far back as 1272 and 1346; and early in the fifteenth century John de Ralstoune or Ralphstoun was Lord High Treasurer and Bishop of Dunkeld.

RAMSAY
Local: from the village of Ramsay in Huntingdonshire. The Scottish branch of the family are descended from Simon de Ramsay of Dalhousie in Edinburghshire.The Abbot of Ramsay bore on his seal a ram in the sea, with this verse: " Cujus signa quo dux gregis ut ego;" He whose signs I bear is leader of the flock, as I am.

The Ramsays are an ancient family of Anglo-Norman origin. The first of the name recorded in Scotland was Simon de Ramsay, who was granted lands in Lothian by David I. He was the ancestor of the Ramsays of Dalhousie. The names of many of the family appear in
charters between that date and 1296 when that of William de Ramsay appears in the Ragman Roll. He later supported Bruce and signed the letter to the Pope asserting the independence of Scotland in 1320.

During the next three centuries the Ramsays were prominently engaged in the Border Wars, with raids into England. In 1618 George Ramsay, of Dalhousie, was created Lord Ramsay of Melrose, a title changed a few months later to Lord Ramsay of Dalhousie. His son,
William, was created Earl of Dalhousie by Charles I in 1633. During the War of the Spanish Succession, William, 5th Earl, was colonel of the Scots Guards sent to support Archduke Charles of Austria. He died in Spain in 1710. George, 9th Earl, had a distinguished military career in various parts of the world and in 1815 was created Baron Dalhousie in the peerage of the United Kingdom. His son, James, 10th Earl, was created Marquess of Dalhousie in 1849. He was Governor-General of India from 1847 till 1855. When he died in 1860 the title of Marquess became extinct. The Scottish titles Earl of Dalhousie and Baron Ramsay devolved on his cousin Fox, 2nd Lord Panmure, 11th Earl of Dalhousie.

The Ramsays of Bamff, Perthshire, are descended from Adam de Ramsay of Bamff, a baron in the 13th century. In 1666 a baronetcy of Nova Scotia was conferred on Sir Gilbert Ramsay. Sir George, 6th Bart., was killed in a duel with Capt. James Macrae of Holmains in 1790.

Ramsay, Sir Alexander (-d.1332). Scottish patriot famed for his deeds of bravery. He was captured and starved to death at Hermitage Castle by William Douglas 'The Flower of Chivalry'.

Ramsay, Allan (1685-1759) of Leadhills, Lanarkshire. Pastoral poet. The Gentle Shepherd, a pastoral comedy, (1725) and Thirty Fables (1730) his most popular. Was by trade a wigmaker. He created the first circulating library in Great Britain, and was also noted for his efforts to establish a theatre in Edinburgh.

Ramsay, Allan (1713-84), son of Ramsay of Leadhills. Portrait painter of distinction. Had great success in London.

Ramsay, Sir Andrew Crombie (1814-91) of Glasgow. Geologist. Appointed Director-General of the Geological Survey in 1871. He was the first to mention the glacial origin of 'Drift'. Elected FRS in 1863.

Ramsay, Andrew Michael (1686-1743) of Ayr. Theologian and writer.

Ramsay, Edward Bannerman Burnett (1793-1872) of Aberdeen. Divine and writer of various religious works. His Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character (1857) was delightful.

Ramsay, Sir William (1852-1916) of Glasgow. Professor of Chemistry at Bristol (1880-87) and Univ. Coll., London (1887-1912). In conjunction with Lord Rayleigh he discovered the gas Argon in 1894. Later he discovered Helium, Neon, Krypton and Xenon, and won a Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1904. Elected FRS in 1888.

RANDOLPH
Fair help, from ran, fair, and ulph, help. Sir Thomas Randolph was created Earl of Murray in 1313.

Randolph, Sir Thomas, 1st Earl of Moray (-d.1332). Soldier and statesman and comrade of Bruce who created him Earl of Moray. He commanded a division at Bannockburn, took Berwick (1318), won the victory of Mitton (1319), re-invaded England (1320 and 1327), and was Regent from Bruce's death (1329) until his own.

RANKIN, Henry C. D. (1888-1965) of Ayrshire. Surgeon and Major-General. Served with distinction in the 1914-18 War. Surgeon to C in C India (1923-25) and (1927-31), Surgeon to the Governor, Bombay (1936-37). Deputy Director Medical Services in India Commands (1941-46).

RANKIN, Robert (1915-), educ. Fettes and Cambridge. Professor of Mathematics, Glasgow Univ. (1954-). Prof. of Pure Mathematics at Birmingham Univ. (1951-54). Visiting Professor, Indiana Univ. (1963-64).

RANKINE, William John Macquorn (1820-72) of Edinburgh. Engineer and physicist. His work on the steam engine, machinery, ship-building, applied mechanics, metal fatigue, etc., became standard textbooks. He it was who evolved the scientific term 'Energy'. Considered to be the founder of the science of thermodynamics. Elected FRS in 1853.

RATTRAY
Local: from the barony of Rattray in Perthshire. The family are descended from Alanus de Rateriff, temp. William the Lion.

A follower, but not a sept, of the Murrays of Atholl. The family descends from Adam de Rattrieff who was alive in the thirteenth century.

REDPATH, Anne (1895-1965) of Galashields. Artist. Her oil and watercolour paintings showed great richness of colour. One of the most important modern Scottish artists. Elected RSA in 1952.

REID
Red.

Reid, Sir Alexander (1889-1968), educ. Glasgow and Australia. Member of the Commonwealth Grants Commission (1954-). Under-Treasurer, Govt. of West Australia (1938-54).

Reid, Archibald C. (1915-), educ. Edinburgh and Cambridge. Secretary for Fijian Affairs (1959-). Was British Agent and Consul in Tonga (1957).

Reid, Sir Francis (1900-1970) of Bearsden. Brigadier (1950), Commander, Ceylon Garrison and UK troops in Ceylon (1949-50), Cyprus District (1950-51), Cyrenacia District (1951-52) and Ceylon Army (1952-55).

Reid, Sir George (1841-1912) of Aberdeen. Painter of portraits and landscapes. President of the Royal Scottish Academy (1891-1902). Elected RSA in 1877.

Reid, Sir George Houston (1845-1918) of Johnston, Renfrew. Politician and statesman. Premier of New South Wales (1894-99) and Prime Minister of Australia (1904-05).

Reid, James Scott Cunningham, Baron (life peer) of Drem (1890-) of East Lothian. Lord of Appeal in Ordinary (1948-). Solicitor-General for Scotland (1936-41), Lord Advocate (1941-45), Dean of the Faculty of Advocates (1945-48). Chairman, Malaya Constitutional Commission (1956-57).

Reid, John (1906-) of Callander. Chief Veterinary Officer, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1965-).

Reid or Robertson, John (1721-1807) of Perthshire. Soldier and musician. Entered the army in 1745 and rose to the rank of General. He was a flute player and composer.

Reid, Louis A. (1895-) of Ellon. Professor of Philosophy of Education, Inst. of Education, London Univ. (1947-62).

Reid, Thomas (1710-96) of Strachan Manse. Eminent Philosopher. Wrote several books on metaphysical subjects including an essay on 'The Intellectual Powers of Man' (1785) and 'Actual Powers of the Human Mind' (1788).

Reid, Sir Thomas Wemyss (1842-1905). Scottish journalist and biographer born at Newcastle upon Tyne. Editor of the Speaker (1890-99). He wrote Lives of Charlotte Bronte and Lord Houghton and several novels.

Reid, Sir William (1791-1858) of Kingussie. Meteorologist, soldier and administrator. Served with distinction in the Peninsular War, and was Governor of Bermuda, Windward Islands and Malta.

REITH, John Charles Welsham, 1st Baron of Stonehaven (1889-1971). Administrator who became known as the 'Father of the BBC" (1927-38), Minister of Information (1940), Min. of Transport (1940), Min. of Works and Building (1940-42). First Chairman of BOAC (1939-40). Director of Combined Operations Material at Admiralty (1943-45).

RENNIE, George (1) (1791-1866) born in London son of John (3). Engineer with his brother John (4) carried on an immense business of shipbuilding, railways, bridges, harbours, docks, machinery and marine engines. Sometime Superintendent of the machinery of the Royal Mint.

RENNIE, (2) Sir Gilbert (1895-), educ. Stirling and Glasgow. Governor and C in C, Northern Rhodesia (1948-54). High Commissioner in UK for the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1954-61).

RENNIE, (3) John (1761-1821) of Phantassie Farm, East Linton. Civil engineer. Builder of bridges, canals and docks. Built some 60 bridges including Waterloo and Southwark. He built the London and East and West India Docks, and docks at Leith, Plymouth, Liverpool, Dublin, Hull, Chatham and Portsmouth. The Kennet and Avon Canal was also his work.

RENNIE, (4) Sir John (1794-1874) son of John (3) and brother of George (1). Engineer. Was knighted on his completion of the construction of London Bridge in 1831.

RENWICK, William L. (1889-1970) of Glasgow. Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature, Univ. of Edinburgh (1945-49). Prof. of English Language and Literature, King's Coll., Newcastle upon Tyne and in the Univ. of Durham (1921-45). Visiting Prof. to China (1943-44).

RICHARDSON, Frank M. (1904-), educ. Glenalmond and Edinburgh. Physician. Major-General (1957). Director of Medical Services, BAOR (1956-61).

RICHARDSON, Sir John (1787-1865) of Dumfries. Naturalist, physician and Arctic explorer. Commanded the expedition in search of Franklin (1848-49).

RIDELL
Local: from the lands of Ridell in Roxburgh-shire. The family are descended from Oscitel de Ridel, 1090.

RIDDELL, Henry Scott (-d.1870) of Teviothead. Songwriter and minister. 'Scotland Yet' and 'Oor Ain Folk' are from his pen.

RIG
Rich, wealthy.

RILEY, James, of Glasgow. Engineer who discoverd nickel steel in 1889.

RITCHIE
A contraction of Richard, which signifies of a generous disposition.

Ritchie, Andrew E. (1915-), educated Edinburgh and Aberdeen.Professor of Physiology, United Coll. of Univ. of St Andrews (1958-). Scientific Adviser, Civil Defence (1961-).

Ritchie, Sir Douglas (1885-) of Aberdeenshire. Became Chief Executive of London Port Emergency Committee (1939-46).

Ritchie, Sir John (1904-) educated Turiff and Edinburgh. Became Principal and Dean of the Royal Veterinary Coll., University of London in 1965.

Ritchie, John K., 3rd Baron Ritchie of Dundee (1902-). Was Chairman of the Stock Exchange from 1959 till 1965.

Ritchie, Kenneth Gordon (1921-) of Arbroath. Was appointed High Commissioner in Guyana in 1967.

Ritchie, William (1781-1831) of Fifeshire. Solicitor and writer. One of the founders of the Scotsman (1816).

Ritchie-CALDER, Peter R., Baron (life peer) (1906-) of Forfar. Author, Scientific Social and Political journalist and broadcaster. Director of Plans of Political Warfare in the Foreign Office (1941-45). Chairman, Metrication Bd. (1969-). Fellow of the World Academy of Arts and Science. Has written over 30 books which have been translated into more than 40 languages.

ROB ROY, (Robert Macgregor) (1671-1734) of Glen Gyle, Perthshire. Notorious freebooter. Helped the poor at the expense of the rich.

ROBB, Andrew McCance (1887-1968), educ. Glasgow. Professor of Naval Architecture in Univ. of Glasgow (1944-57). Practised as a consulting Naval architect, (1925-44).

ROBERTS, David (1796-1864) of Edinburgh. Painter. Among his pictures were Departure of the Israelites from Egypt (1829), Jerusalem (1845), -Rome (1853) and Grand Canal of Venice (1856). RA 1841.

ROBERTSON
The son of Robert. The family are descended from the ancient Earls of Athol, who were derived from Duncan, king of Scotland, son of Malcolm Canmore. The name was assumed by Alexander, son of that Robert who arrested the murderers of James I, and for which act James II granted him for a crest a hand supporting a regal crown.

The Robertsons, known as Clan Donnachaidh, are claimed to be descended from the Celtic Earls of Atholl. The clan takes its Gaelic name from Donnachadh Reamhar (Stout Duncan) the staunch friend of Bruce, who led the clan at Bannockburn. It was from Robert Riach (Grizzled Robert) that the clan took the name of Robertson. This Robert was the chief who captured the murderers of James I and delivered them to the Government, and for this action he received, in 1451, a crown charter erecting his lands into the barony of Struan.About a century later the Earl of Atholl seized about half of the Struan lands under a wadset and the Robertsons never recovered them.

The Robertsons were loyal adherents of the Stuarts and accompanied Montrose in all his campaign, and after the Restoration Charles II settled a pension on Robertson of Struan. Alexander, the celebrated poet, chief of Struan, born about 1670, was studying for the church when he succeeded to the chiefship, but he left the cloisters and joined Dundee in 1688. He was attainted, but received a remission in 1703. He was out again in 1715, and was captured at Sheriffmuir, but escaped to France. He was pardoned in 1731, but joined Prince Charles in 1745 with the clan; he was then too old to fight and returned home in Sir John Cope's carriage. He died in 1749. The Robertsons of Lude are the oldest cadet family. Other families are the Robertsons of Inches, of Kindeace, of Auchleeks, of Kinlochmoidart, etc. The Chief of the clan is styled Struan-Robertson.

Robertson, Sir Hugh (1874-1952) of Glasgow. Conductor of the Glasgow Orpheus Choir, which achieved international renown.

Robertson, Archibald (1853-) of Edinburgh. Divine. Bishop of Exeter (1903-16). Appointed Principal of King's College in 1897.

Robertson, Fyfe (1902-87) of Edinburgh. Journalist and TV personality. Was picture editor of the Picture Post until it ceased publica-tion.

Robertson, George Croom (1842-92) of Aberdeen. Philosopher. In 1866 became Professor of Mental Philosophy and Logic at Univ. Coll., London.

Robertson of Brackia (lan Argyll). Major-General. Brigade Major, 152 Bde. 51st (H) Div. (1943), Commanded 51st (H) Div. (1964-66), Director of Army Equipment, MOD (1966-68).

Robertson, James Logie (1846-1922) of Milnathort. Poet who feigned to be a shepherd 'Hugh Haliberton'. His works incl. 'Horace Homespun' (1886) and 'Ochil Idylls' (1891).

Robertson, James (c. 1720-88) of Fifeshire. Soldier who became Governor of New York in 1779, and Commander in Chief, Virginia in 1780.

Robertson, Sir James (1899-) of Broughty Ferry. Governor-General and C in C of the Federation of Nigeria (1955-60). Director of Uganda Co. (1961-), and other high offices in East Africa.

Robertson, James, of Paisley. A grocer who founded what is now one of the largest preserve manufacturers in the world.

Robertson, James C. (1813-82) of Aberdeen. Divine and author of the History of the Christian Church. Was appointed Canon of Canterbury in 1859.

Robertson, John M. (1900-) of Auchterarder. Professor of Chemistry, Univ. of Glasgow (1942-). Director of Laboratories (1955-). Visiting Professor, Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA (1958). President, Chemical Soc. (1962-64).

Robertson, John Mackinnon (1856-1933) of Arran. Politician, critic and editor of the National Observer in London (1891-93). Was Liberal MP for Tyneside and rose to be Secretary to the Board of Trade and Privy Counsellor.

Robertson, Joseph (1810-66) of Aberdeen. Antiquary who contributed much to Chamber's Encyclopaedia.

Robertson, Sir MacPherson (1860-1945). Born of Scottish parents at Ballarat, Australia. Founder of the Australian confectionary firm that bears his name. He gave a large sum of money towards the expenses of the Australian Antarctic Expedition (1929-30). MacRobertson Land in Antarctica commemorates his name. It was Robertson who initiated the air race from England to Australia.

Robertson, William (1721-93) of Borthwick, Midlothian. Minister and historian. His History of Scotland 1542-1603 (1759) was a great success, and was followed by his History of the Reign of the Emperor Charles V(1769), his most valuable work for which he received 4,500 and high praise from Voltaire and Gibbon.

Robertson, Sir William (1860-1933). Scottish soldier believed to be the only British soldier to rise from private to Field-Marshal, (CIGS 1915-18).

The Rob Roy tartan of red and black checks, perhaps the best known of all the Scottish tartans, was used by Robert MacGregor possibly because of the proscription of the clan name of MacGregor. Rob Roy was the younger son of Lieut.-Col. Donald MacGregor of Glengyle, and his mother was a Campbell of Glenfalloch, and a granddaughter of Sir Robert Campbell of Glenorchy. He was born about 1660. In early life he was a gentleman cattle drover, and became involved in financial difficulties with the Duke of Montrose. The Duke obtained possession of Rob Roy's lands of Craig Royston, and Rob declared that in future the Duke would provide him with cattle and that the Duke would regret the quarrel. For thirty years Rob carried out this threat and continued to take all the cattle, goods and money he required.

Rob Roy was a brilliant swordsman and led a very adventurous life as an outlaw. The government erected a fort at Inversnaid and garrisoned it with an English regiment to keep the MacGregors in order, but Rob Roy captured the fort, disarmed and dispersed the garrison, and set fire to the fort. Rob, escaping all attempts to capture him, died at home in Balquhidder in 1734, and was buried in the churchyard there, where his grave and that of his wife Helen are still visited by many admirers of his romantic life..

RODGER, Thomas R. (1878-1968). Educated Lanark, Glasgow and Edinburgh. Aural surgeon. Senior surgeon, Ear Nose and Throat Dept., Hull Royal Infirmary (1919-38). Group Officer, Min. of Health (1939-46).

ROGER
Peace.

ROLLO
The family are descended Richard de Rollo, son of Richard, Duke of Normandy, and brother of William the Conqueror, who settled in Perthshire, temp. David I.

ROLLOCK, Robert (c. 1555-99) of Powis, nr. Stirling. Became first Principal of Edinburgh Univ. in 1583. He wrote Latin Commentaries.

ROPER, Andrew, of Hawick. A farmer who in 1737 invented the winnowing machine.

The Clan Rose were settled in the district of Nairn in the 12th century, and there is documentary evidence to prove that about 1219 Hugh Rose of Geddes was witness to the foundation charter of Beauly Priory. His son Hugh acquired the lands of Kilravock by marriage, and Kilravock remains with the family to the present day. In 1390 the family charters and other documentswere destroyed by fire in the cathedral church of Beauly, where they had been placed for safety. In 1433 John Rose, 6th of Kilravock, received confirmation of his lands from James I. His son Hugh built the old tower of Kilravock in 1460. The barony of Kilravock was erected in 1474. Hugh, loth of Kilravock, was taken prisoner at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547. He was sheriff of Ross, Constable of Inverness Castle, and sheriff-principal of Inverness. He died in 1597, aged 90 years.

The Roses of Kilravock were diplomatic in their relations with their neighbours and consequently lived peaceably compared with most other clans. They were loyal to the government during the Revolution and the Jacobite Risings of 1715 and 1745. Hugh, 15th of Kilravock, sheriff of Ross, voted against the Union of 1707, but was one of the commissioners to represent Scotland in the first British parliament.

Sir Hugh H. Rose, born in 1803, was in command of the Central Field Force during the Indian Mutiny: during which he fought sixteen successful actions, captured 150 pieces of artillery, took twenty forts, and captured Ratghur, Shanghur, Chundehree, Jhansi and Calpee. He was raised to the peerage as Baron Strathnairn in 1866, and was made Field Marshal in 1877.

ROSEBERRY, (6th Earl of Roseberry) (1882-1974) of Balmeny, Edinburgh. Great sporting personality, sometimes called 'The Grand Old Man of Racing'.

ROSS
Local: from the district of Ross. Robert de Ross married Isabel, daughter of William the Lion. Sir John Ross was created Lord Ross in 1489.

The Clan Ross take their name from the province of Ross and are designated in Gaelic as Clann Andrias. Their traditional progenitor Fearchar Mac-an-t-sagairt (son of the priest), of Applecross, was a powerful supporter of Alexander II and, for his services, was created Earl of Ross about 1234. His grandson, William, led his clan at the Battle of Bannockburn, and Hugh, 5th Earl, was killed at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. Hugh's successor, William, died without male issue and succession passed through the female line, a circumstance which later led to the struggle for the Earldom between the Lord of the Isles and the Regent Albany. In 1424 the Earldom reverted to the Crown but James I restored it to Margaret, mother of Alexander, 3rd Lord of the Isles, and it remained with the Lords of the Isles until the Lordship was forfeited in 1476 when the earldom became vested in the Crown. On the death of William, Earl of Ross, the chiefship of the clan passed to his brother Hugh Ross of Ranches, who obtained a charter of the lands of Balnagowan in 1374, and for over three centuries the Rosses of Balnagowan remained the principal family of the clan. David Ross, the last of the direct line of Balnagowan, settled the estate on the Hon. Charles Ross, son of Lord Ross of Hawkhead, Renfrewshire. There was no connection between the two families. Balnagowan devolved upon George, 13th Lord Ross in 1745. On the death of William, 14th Lord Ross, unmarried, Balnagowan went to Sir James Lockhart, 2nd Bart. of Carstairs. Sir John, 5th Bart., assumed the name Ross, and on the sale of Carstairs in 1762 adopted the designation of Balnagowan. The chiefship is now vested in Ross of Pitcalnie, heir of the line of David, last of the old family of Balnagowan.

Ross, Alexander (1880-) of Forres. Barrister and Brigadier-General. Judge of District Court of Yorkton, Saskatchewan (1921-55).

Ross, Alexander David (1883-1966) of Glasgow. Executive Officer, Pan-Indian Ocean Science Assoc. East-West Centre, Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (1961-64).

Ross, Sir David (1877-) of Thurso, Caithness. Appointed Chairman Civil Service Tribunal (1942-52) & Royal Commission on the Press (1947-49). Hon. Fellow of Merton, Balliol and Oriel Coll., and of Trinity Coll.. Dublin.

Ross, Frank M. (1891-) of Glasgow. Chairman, Canadian Executive Committee and joint Chief Executive, Lafarge Canada Co. Ltd. Some-time Director-General of Production of Naval Armaments and Equipment, Dept. of Munitions and Supply, Canada.

Ross, Sir Hew D. (1779-1868) of Galloway. Soldier and Field-Marshal who served with distinction under Wellington.

Ross, James (1848-1913) of Cromarty. Civil Engineer. Constructed railways. in the US and Canada. Built the mountain sections of the Canadian Pacific Riy. (1883-85). Financed and built, with others, tramway systems in Montreal, Toronto, England, West Indies and Mexico.

Ross, Sir James dark (1800-62) born in London of Wigtownshire forebears. Rear-Admiral and explorer. Discovered the Ross Sea which bears his name. He was also responsible, with his uncle Sir John Ross for the establishment of the true position of the magnetic north.

Ross, John born near Lookout Mountain, Tennessee in 1790, son of a Scottish emigrant. Became a Cherokee Indian Chief.

Ross, Sir John (1777-1856) of Wigtownshire. Rear-Admiral and explorer in Baffin Bay. Discovered the Boothia Peninsula in his search for the north-west passage to the pole. With his nephew Sir James dark Ross he established the true position of magnetic north. Was Consul at Stockholm (1839-46).

Ross, Sir John Lockhart (1721-90) of Lanarkshire. Vice-Admiral, with distinguished service in the Channel and North Sea.

Ross, Sir Ronald (1857-1932) born in Almora, India of Scots descent. Made the discovery (1895-98) that malaria parasites were carried by mosquitos and transmitted to their victims while sucking blood.

Ross, Sir William Charles (1794-1860). Painter. Painted many portraits of the Royal Family. Appointed miniature painter to the Queen in 1837.

ROW John (c.1525-80), educ. at Stirling and St Andrews. Scottish reformer. Was four times Moderator of the General Assembly.

ROW John (1568-1646), eldest son of the above. Minister. Wrote a prolix but reliable History of the Kirk of Scotland. He was strongly opposed to the introduction of Episcopacy into Scotland.

ROXBURGH, William, of Ayrshire. Botanist. Appointed Superintendent of Calcutta Botanical Gardens in 1793. Wrote The Standard Flora of India. Became known as the 'Father of Indian Botany'.

ROY
Red haired.

Roy, William (1726-99) of Miltonhead, Lanarkshire. Surveyor and soldier. Prepared the 'Great Map' of Scotland. Appointed Major-General and Military Surveyor in 1781. Regarded by many as the father of Ordnance Survey. Elected FRS in 1767.

RUDDIMAN, Thomas (1674-1757), of Boyndie, Banffshire. Classical grammarian and philologist. Editor of Latin works.

RUNCIE, Dr Alexander Kennedy, born at Liverpool in 1921, son of a Scottish electrical engineer from Kilmarnock. Enthroned Archbishop of Canterbury, March 1980. He was a wartime Scots Guards Officer and holder of the MC.

Russell. A name allied to the French Rosel. The Russells of Aden, in Aberdeenshire, descend from an English baron who accompanied Edward III at the siege of Berwick and decided to settle in Scotland.

RUSSEL, Alexander (1814-76) of Edinburgh. Journalist and editor of the Scotsman from 1848. An antagonist of the Corn Laws.

RUSSELL, John Scott (1808-82) of Parkhead, Glasgow. Civil and Naval Architect and engineer. Inventor of the 'Wave system' of ship-building. He built the Great Eastern and many other ships.

RUTHERFORD
Local: from the lands of Rutherford in Roxburghshire. The family are descended from Sir Richard de Ruthirfurde, 1390.

Rutherford, Charles (1858-1922) of Edinburgh. Veterinary surgeon. Became Principal Veterinary Officer, India in 1908, a position he held till 1913.

Rutherford, Daniel (1749-1819) of Edinburgh. Physician and botanist. In 1772 published his discovery of the distinction between 'noxious air' (nitrogen) and carbon dioxide. Subsequent study on the constitution of natural gases was founded on his work. He was the inventor of a max.-min. thermometer in 1794.

Rutherford, Ernest Lord Rutherford of Nelson (1871-1937), New Zealand born of Scots descent. 4th son of 12 children. Physicist and pioneer in atomic research. The first to split the atom.

Rutherford, John G. (1857-1923) of Peebleshire. Veterinary surgeon. Veterinary Director-General (1902-12) and Live Stock Commissioner (1906-1912) for Canada. Sometime Commissioner, Board of Riy. Comm. for Canada.

Rutherford, Samuel (1600-61) of Nisbet, near Jedburgh. Theologian and preacher. Prof. of Divinity at St Andrews (1639) and Principal (1647). His chief fame rested upon his devotional works, such as Christ dying and drawing sinners to himself (1649).

RUTHVEN
Local: from the Barony of Ruthven, in Perth-shire. The family are descended from Swanus de Ruthven, temp. William the Lion.

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