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Scottish Surnames

The Life of Walter Scott
The Life of Walter Scott: A Critical Biography (Blackwell Critical Biographies)

True Adventures of Alexander Selkirk
Marooned: The Strange But True Adventures of Alexander Selkirk, the Real Robinson Crusoe

On the Trail of Robert Service
On the Trail of Robert Service (On the Trail of)

Jimmy Shand Story
The Jimmy Shand Story: The King of Scottish Dance Music

Bill Shankly
'It's Much More Important Than That': Bill Shankly, The Autobiography

Sir James Young Simpson and Chloroform
Sir James Young Simpson and Chloroform (1811-1870)

Mary Slessor
Mary Slessor: Faith in West Africa (By Faith Biography Series)

Adam Smith
The Wealth
of Nations

Lighthouse Stevensons
The Lighthouse Stevensons: The Extraordinary Story of the Building of the Scottish Lighthouses by the Ancestors of Robert Louis Stevenson

Robert Louis Stevenson A Biography
Robert Louis
A Biography

Stewart Granger
Stewart Granger

David Stirling
David Stirling: The Authorised Biography of the Founder of the SAS

Jackie Stewart
Jackie Stewart: A Restless Life - The Unauthorised Biography

Charles Edward Stuart
Bonnie Prince Charlie: Charles Edward Stuart

Scottish Surnames
Scottish Surnames

Scottish Surnames Book
Scottish Surnames

Surnames of Scotland
The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning and History

Scottish Place Names


Scottish Surnames, Sanders to Symington

A contraction of Alexander.

Local: from the barony of Sandilands in Lanarkshire. The family are descended from Sir James Sandilands, temp. David Bruce.

SCOT, Sir John (1585-1670) of Cupar. Pioneer map maker and scholar.

SCOT, Michael (c.1175-1234) of Balwearie. Scholar and mathematician attached to the Court of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. He wrote works on astrology, astronomy and alchemy and became popular as a magician and sometimes known as the 'Wonderous Wizard.'

The Scotts, one of the most powerful Border clans, take their name from a race who invaded Scotland at an early date and filtered into many other countries. Uchtredus filius Scoti witnessed charters between 1107 and 1128, and from him were descended the Scotts of
Buccleuch and the Scotts of Balwearie. The Buccleuchs exchanged Murdochston in Lanarkshire for Branxholm in Roxburghshire. Sir Walter, 13th Baron, was created Lord Scott of Buccleuch by James VI and his son was raised to the dignity of Earl of Buccleuch in 1619. On the failure of the male line the Countess of Buccleuch married the Duke of Monmouth, natural son of Charles II, who was created Duke of Buccleuch. His grandson became 2nd Duke, and the third Duke succeeded to the Dukedom of Queensberry.

Sir Michael Scott, knighted by Alexander II, obtained the lands of Balwearie by marriage with the heiress of Sir Richard Balwearie. Their son, Sir Michael, who died about 1300, was the famous wizard, actually one of the most learned men of his time. It is notable that of
fourteen successive barons of Balwearie, thirteen of them were knighted. The Balwearie family are now represented by the Scotts of Ancrum. Among the many prominent families of the clan are the Scots of Harden, of which family Sir Walter Scott, author of Waverley, was a scion. William Scott, who died in 1563, received the estate of Harden from his brother Walter Scott of Synton. Walter, 2nd of Harden, was the famous " Auld Wat of Harden," of whom many traditions still survive in the Border country, and he and his wife Mary Scott, " the Flower of Yarrow," are celebrated in Border song.

SCOTT, Alastair lan (1928-), educ. Glasgow. Professor of Chemistry, Texas A & M Univ. (1977-). Prof. Univ. of Columbia (1962-65), Univ. of Sussex (1965-68) and Yale Univ. (1968-77). Elected FRS 1978.

SCOTT, Alexander (c. 1525-84) from near Edinburgh. Lyrical poet.

SCOTT, Alexander Whiteford (1904-) of Glasgow. Professor of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (1955-71). Was Hon. Engineering Consultant to the Min. of Agri., Fisheries and Food (1946-62).

SCOTT, David (1806-49) of Edinburgh. Historical painter. His painting The Vintager is in the National Gallery. RSA (1829).

SCOTT, Duncan Campbell (1862-1947) born in Canada, son of a Scottish missionary. Poet and writer of short stories. Known chiefly as Canada's Poet Laureate. His pieces 'The Forsaken' and 'Half-breed Girl' are among the most famous in Canadian poetry.

SCOTT, Francis George (1880-1958) of Hawick. Composer described as probably the most original and substantial composer Scotland has yet produced. His works include the orchestral suite The Seven Deadly Sins.

SCOTT, Sir lan Dixon (1909-) of Inverness. Diplomat. First Sec. Foreign Office (1950-51), Brit. Legation Helsinki (1952), Brit. Embassy, Beirut (1954-59), Consul-General then Ambassador to the Congo (1960-61), to Sweden (1961-65) and Norway (1965-68).

SCOTT, John (1784-1821) of Aberdeen. Journalist, author and critic. Became first editor of the London Magazine in 1820. He was mortally wounded in a duel in London.

SCOTT, Michael (1789-1835) of Glasgow. Businessman and author. Spent some time in the West Indies. His Tom Cringle's Log (1829-33) and The Cruise of the Midge (1834-35) considered among his best works.

SCOTT, Paul Henderson (1920-) of Edinburgh. Consul-General, Vienna (1968-) and Milan (1977-).

SCOTT, Sir Robert (1905-) of Peterhead. Minister, Brit. Embassy, Washington (1953-55). Commissioner-General for UK in SE Asia (1955-59). Permanent Sec. Min. of Defence (1961-63).

SCOTT, Thomas (1897-1968) of Montrose. Major-General. Chief of Staff to C in C Ceylon (1944), Director of Manpower, Planning GHQ India (1944-46) and Deputy Chief of General Staff (B) GHQ, India (1946-47).

SCOTT, Sir Walter (1771-1832) of Edinburgh. Novelist, historian, poet, antiquarian and sheriff. Prolific writer with famous works too numerous to mention here.

SCOTT, William Bell (1811-90) of Edinburgh. Painter, illustrator and poet.

SCOTT, William (1913-) of Greenock. Painter-predominately abstract. His work is noted for its sensitive handling and colour.

SCOTT-ELLIOT, James (1902-) of Dumfriesshire? Major-General (1954). GOC 51st (H) Division (1952-56).

SCOTT-MONCRIEFF, Sir Colin Campbell (1836-1916). Scottish engineer and administrator. Played a great part in Egyptian irrigation.

A skirmisher. The family are descended from Sir Alexander Carron, temp. Alexander I, who received the name of Scrymgeour, on account of his activity.

SEATH, Thomas Bollen (1820-1903) of Prestonpans. Shipbuilder and designer of steam yachts, ferry vessels, hopper barges, etc.

SELKIRK, Alexander (1676-1721) of Largo, Fife. Seafarer, whose story of his time on Juan Fernandez island where he lived alone for four years and four months, is supposed to have suggested the Robinson Crusoe of Defoe.

SELKIRK, Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of (1771-1820). Explorer and colonizer. Settled emigrants from the Scottish Highlands in Prince Edward Island (1803) and Red River Valley, Manitoba. Became known as 'Selkirk of Red River'.

SELLAR, William Young (1825-90) from near Golspie. Classical scholar. He made his name widely known by his brilliant Roman Poets of the Republic (1863) and The Roman Poets of the Augustan Age- Virgil (1877).

SEMPILL, Francis (c.1616-82) of Renfrewshire, son of Robert Sempill ( 1595-16650. Poet and author of The Banishment of Povertie.

SEMPILL, Robert (c. 1530-95) of Renfrewshire. Author of satirical and witty ballads such as 'The Legend of a Lymaris Life' and 'Siege of the Castle of Edinburgh'. He wrote coarsely satirical poems of life in his time.

SEMPILL, Robert (c. 1595-1665) of Renfrewshire. Royalist and poet. Remembered perhaps for his ballad on the 'Life and Death of Habbie Simson, piper of Kibarchan' (1640).

SEMPILL, William F. Forbes-Sempill, 19th Baron (1893-1965). Representative Peer of Scotland (1935-68). Royal Aeronautical Society Chairman (1926-27) and President (1927-30). Competed in the King's Cup Air Race, 1924, '25, '26, '27, '28, '29 and '30.

A contraction of St. Paul. The family are descended from Robert Semple of Ellerston in Renfrewshire, 1250.

SERVICE, Robert. Scottish bank clerk. Went to Canada to be a cow-boy. Became Canada's most popular poet at the end of the nineteenth century. His first book of verse Songs of a Sourdough made him a fortune. 'Dangerous Dan Macgrew' was his creation too.

Local: from the lands of Seton in Haddingtonshire. The family are descended from Dowgal Seaton, temp. Malcolm Canmore - their ancient war cry and motto was " Set on."

SHAIRP, John Campbell (1819-85) of Houston House, West Lothian. Poet. Professor of Poetry at Oxford (1877-82).

SHAND, James (Jimmy) (1908-) of East Wemyss, Fife. World famous Scottish dance band leader. An entertainer described as having magic in his fingertips on the accordion.

SHANKLY, Bill ('Shanks') (1914-81) of Ayrshire. Footballer and football club manager extraordinary. Managed Liverpool FC (1959-74). One of the all-time greats of football.

SHARP, William (1855-1905) of Paisley. Novelist, art critic and poet. Settled in London in 1879. Published Earth's Vices in 1884 and wrote on contemporary English, French and German poets. Under the pseudonym 'Fiona Macleod' he wrote some fine romances incl. The Moun-tain Lovers and The Sin Eater (1895) and later The Immortal Hour.

SHARPE, Charles Kirkpatrick (1781-1851) of Dumfries. Antiquarian. Contributed two original ballads to Scott's Minstrelsy.

A thicket, a grove. The Highland family of Shaw is a branch of the clan Mackintosh.

Clan Shaw was one of the principal Clans of Clan Chattan. Shaw "Mor", great-grandson of Angus, 6th Chief of Mackintosh and Eva of Clan Chattan was, by tradition, the leader of Clan Chattan at the battle on the North Inch, Perth, in 1396. Rothiemurchus was given to him as a reward but the lands were sold in the 16th century. His son, James, was killed at Hariaw in 1411 but his heir, Alasdair "Ciar" succeeded him. Alasdair's brother, Adam (Ay), of Tordarroch was founder of Clan Ay. Tordarroch acted for Clan Shaw and at Inverness in 1543 and Termit in 1609 signed the Clan Chattan Bands. They supported Montrose and raised the Shaw contingent in the Jacobite rising of 1715. Alasdair's second son, Alexander, was ancestor of Shaws of Dell; his third, James, of Shaws of Dalnavert; his fourth, Farquhar, was progenitor of Clan Farquharson and the fifth, Iver, ancestor of the Shaws of Harris and the Isles.

Shaw, Sir James (1764-1843) of Riccarton, Ayrshire. Was Lord Mayor of London in 1805.

Shaw, Richard Norman (1831-1912) of Edinburgh. Architect who had great influence on late nineteenth century architecture.

SHEARER, Sir James G. (1893-1966) of Dundee. Was President of the Supreme Court, Asmara, Eritrea, (1953-62).

SHEARER, Moira, of Dunfermline. Actress and ballet dancer. Best remembered for her part as ballerina in the film The Red Shoes (1948).

SHEPHERD, Reverend Robert H.W. (1888-) Educ. St Andrews and Edinburgh. Missionary of the UF Church of Scotland to S.Africa (1918), Cape Province (1920-26), Lovedale Missionary Institution (1927-58) and President of the Christian Council of South Africa (1956-60).

The Shepherd tartan is one of the most common, and perhaps one of the oldest in Scotland. It originated, most probably, from the use of the wool from white and from black or brown sheep. This did not require dyeing and consequently reduced the amount of work necessary to enable it to be woven into cloth.

SHIELDS, Dr Alexander of Glasgow. Invented an improved pulsating vacuum milking machine in 1895.

SHIRREFF, Patrick (1791-1876) from near Haddington, East Lothian. Farmer who was a pioneer of cereal hybridizing and produced many varieties of wheat and oats.

The family are descended from "Dominus Syhaldus, Miles de Mearnis," temp. William the Lion; his posterity, " Walterus filius Sybaldi," Mathseus Sybald, and others are frequently mentioned as witnesses to the Royal Charters. The motto of the family is " Sae bauld."

Sibbald, Sir Robert (1641-1722) of Edinburgh. Naturalist and physician. Spent much time on botany and zoology. Was virtual founder of the Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh and became Scottish Geographer Royal.

Vide, Syme.

Sim, Alastair (1900-1976) of Edinburgh. Actor and producer. Played leading roles in many popular films and on TV. His best screen perfor-mances incl. Waterloo Road, The Happiest Days of Your Life, Green for Danger, Laughter in Paradise and The Belles of St Trinians.

SIMMONDS, Keith Willison (1912-) of Lanarkshire. Diplomat and Artist. Financial Sec. Nyasaland (1951-57) and Chief Secretary Aden (1957-63). Exhibited a number of paintings in several academies.

The son of Sim, or Simon. Some of the families of Simson are descended from the Frazers.

Simson, Robert (1687-1764) of Kirktonhall, Ayrshire. Mathematician. His great work was his restoration of Euclid's lost treatise on Porisms (1776). His publication The Elements of Euclid (1756) was for a long time the standard text of Euclid in Britain.

SIMPSON, Alfred H. (Mr Justice Simpson) (1914-) of Dundee. Appointed Puisne Judge, High Court of Kenya in 1967.

SIMPSON, William (Bill) (1931-) of Ayr. Actor. Became popular as Dr Finlay in the BBC TV and Radio series Dr Finlay's Casebook.

SIMPSON, Sir George (1792-1860) Scottish Canadian explorer and administrator (1821-56) of Hudson's Bay Co. and its territory. Made an overland journey around the world in 1828. Simpson's Falls and Cape George Simpson are named after him.

SIMPSON, Sir James (1792-1868) of Roxburghshire. Soldier and General who served with distinction under Wellington.

SIMPSON, Sir James F. (1874-1967), educ. Falkirk and Glasgow. Chairman, Chamber of Commerce, Madras (1920-22). Sometime Governor of the Imperial Bank of India, and Consul for Norway at Madras.

SIMPSON, James. A Scotsman who in 1829 installed the first known water purification system-a method of slow filteration on sand beds.

SIMPSON, Sir James Young (1811-70) of Bathgate. Obstetrician and Professor of Midwifery. Discovered Chloroform in 1847, having experimented on himself. Surgeon to the Queen in Scotland (1847).

SIMPSON, Thomas (1808-40) of Dingwall. Explorer in the Canadian Arctic. Simpson Strait bears his name.

SIMPSON, William (1823-99) of Glasgow. Became the first war-artist correspondent during the Crimean war. Was known as 'Crimean Simpson', and was regarded as one of the most famous artist-correspondents in history.

SIMPSON, William Douglas (1896-1968) of Aberdeen. Librarian and archaeologist. Directed excavations at many old castles between 1919 and 1935 including Kildrummy, Kindrochit, Esslemont and Finavon.

A corruption of St. Clare. The family are descended from Walderness Compte de Saint Clare, who came into England with William the Conqueror; his son, William de Sancto Claro, settled in Scotland, where he obtained from Alexander I, a grant of the Barony of Roslyn.

The Sinclairs are of Norman origin, the first of the name being William de Sancto Claro, who received a grant of the barony of Roslin, Midlothian, in the 12th century. Sir Henry St. Clair of Roslin supported Robert the Bruce, and his son Sir William accompanied Sir James Douglas with the heart of Bruce, and died fighting the Moors in Spain.

Henry, son of Sir William Sinclair, obtained the Earldom of Orkney in 1379 through his father's marriage with Isabella, Countess of Orkney. William, 3rd Earl, founded Roslin Chapel in 1446, and received the Earldom of Caithness in 1455. In 1470 the Earldom of Orkney, which had previously been held from King Haco, was purchased from the Sinclairs by James III. The Earls of Caithness were engaged in a long succession of feuds with the Sutherlands, the Gunns, and other clans, and George, 6th Earl, being deeply in debt, granted a disposition of his title and estates to Sir John Campbell of Glenorchy. The Earl died without issue and Campbell took possession of the estates in 1676. His claim to the title was disputed by George Sinclair of Keiss. In a battle in 1680 the Sinclairs were defeated by the Campbells, but in 1681 George Sinclair's claim to the title was established. The Earldom thereafter passed through several families of Sinclairs. The many prominent families of Sinclairs include the Sinclairs of Ulbster. Sir John of Ulbster (I754-I835) was one of the foremost agriculturists of his time, a voluminous writer of poetical works, and editor of the first Statistical Account of Scotland.

Sinclair, Allan F. W. (1900-) of Edinburgh. Journalist and publicist. Editor of the Sunday Graphic (1831-36) and Daily Sketch (1936-39). Sometime Director, British Information Services, Middle East. Specialist Radio Photographic Adviser, India and Ceylon (1945). Joined the Daily Herald in 1946 and later the Sun.

Sinclair, Sir Archibald Henry MacDonald, 1st Viscount Thurso of Ulbster (1890-1970) Leader of the Liberal Party (1935-45), Secretary of State for Air in the Churchill Administration (1940-45).

Sinclair, Daniel (Dane) (1852-1930) of Thrumster, Caithness. Telephone engineer and inventor of the automatic telephone exchange. He was also the inventor of the hollow tube solder containing fluxite. He was regarded as one of the leading telephone engineers of his day.

Sinclair, Hugh Macdonald (1910-) of Edinburgh. Fellow and lecturer in Physiology and Biochemistry, Magdalen College, Oxford (1937-). Produced many publications on nutrition and metabolism. Director, International Institute of Human Nutrition (1972-).

Sinclair, James, 14th Earl of Caithness (1824-81). Patented many ingenious inventions, including a loom, steam carriage and gravitating compass.

Sinclair, John (Lord Pentland) 1st Baron (1866-1925) of Edinburgh. Governor of Madras (1912-19). Secretary for Scotland (1905-12).

Sinclair, Sir John of Ulbster (1754-1835) of Thurso. Politician and agriculturist. Founded the Board of Agriculture in 1793. Compiled the First Statistical Account of Scotland (1791-99). Was undoubtedly one of the most energetic and enterprising Scotsman who has ever lived.

Sinclair, Patrick (1736-1820) of Lybster, Caithness. General and soldier of fortune. Served with distinction in many campaigns in North America.

Sinclair, Robert J., 1st Baron of Cleeve (1893-) educ. Glasgow and Oxford. President, Imperial Tobacco Co. Ltd. (1959-), (Chair-man 1947-59). Director-General of Army Requirements, War Office (1939-42).

Some derive their names as well as their arms from some considerable action, and thus a son of Struan Robertson, for killing a wolf in Stocket forest in Athole, in the king's presence, with a dirk, received the name of Skene, which signifies a dirk, and three dirks points in pale, for his arms.

The traditional origin of the Clan Skene takes us back to the 11th century, when a younger son of Robertson of Struan saved the life of the king by killing a wolf with his sgian and was rewarded by the lands of Skene in Aberdeenshire. John de Skene signed the Ragman Roll of 1296. His grandson, Robert, was a faithful follower of Robert the Bruce, from whom he received a charter erecting the lands of Skene into a barony. The chiefs were unfortunate in battle. In 1411 Adam de Skene was killed at Harlaw, Alexander fell at Flodden in 1513, and his grandson, Alexander, was killed at Pinkie in 1547. James Skene of Skene supported the Royalist cause during the reign of Charles I, and later served in the army of Gustavus Adolphus. In 1827 the family of Skene of Skene became extinct in the direct line, and the estates passed to James, 4th Earl of Fife, nephew of the last Skene of Skene.

Other prominent families of Skenes included those of Dyce, Halyards, Cariston, Curriehill and Rubislaw. Sir John Skene, a celebrated lawyer, was admitted a Lord of Session in 1594 and took the title Lord Curriehill. He was the author of several legal works, including De
Verborum Significatione, and Regiam Majestatem, a collection of " The auld lawes and constitutions of Scotland. " Lord Curriehill's son, Sir James Skene, was President of the Court of Session in 1626.

William Forbes Skene, the celebrated writer on Scoto-Celtic history, was born in 1809. He was the author of The Highlanders of Scotland, Celtic Scotland, and several other works. He was appointed Historiographer Royal for Scotland in 1881, and died in 1892.

Skene, William Forbes (1809-92) of Inverie, Knoydart. Historian and biographer. His chief works, The Highlanders of Scotland, their Origin, History and Antiquities (1837), and Celtic Scotland, a History of An-cient Alban (1876-80). He was a close friend of Scott. Became Scottish Historiographer Royal in 1881.

SKINNER, James Scott (1843-1927) of Banchory. Violinist, known as the 'Strathspey king'.

SKINNER, John (1721-1807) of Birse, Aberdeenshire. Historian and songwriter. Wrote the Ecclesiastical History of Scotland (1788) and several songs of which The Ewie wi' the Crookit Horn and Tulloch-gorum were the best known.

SLESSOR, Mary (1849-1915) of Dundee. Missionary in Calabar, Africa for many years.

SLOAN, Sir Tennant, (1884-) of Glasgow. Was Joint Sec. Home Dept., Govt. of India (1932-36). Adviser to the Governor, United Provinces (1939-45).

SMALL, James of Berwickshire. Carpenter and ploughwright. Produced an improved swing plough in 1765 to replace the old Scotch plough of Jas. Anderson of Hermiston. It was the first attempt to design a plough on a scientific basis. He did not patent his plough, and died a poor man.

SMEATON, John (1724-92), born near Leeds, a descendant of an old Perthshire family named Smeton. Civil engineer, builder of bridges, canals and lighthouses. His Eddystone light revolutionised lighthouse design.

SMELLIE, William (1697-1763) of Lanark. Obstetrician. He laid down safe rules on the use of forceps and introduced several types.

SMELLIE, William (1740-95) of Edinburgh. Scientist and printer. One of his first great literary undertakings was the first edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, entirely planned and compiled by himself.

SMILES, Samuel (1812-1904) of Haddington. Author, social reformer and physician. Became a surgeon in Leeds and editor of the Leeds Times, and in 1854, Secretary of the SE Railway.

A worker in metals. The name is written Smyth, and Smythe. Some of the families of Smith are descended from Neil Cromb, third son of Murdoch, Chief of Clan Chattan, temp. William the Lion.

Smith, Adam (1723-90) of Kirkcaldy. Political economist and philosopher. Wrote The Wealth of Nations in 1776. Regarded as the 'father' of the science of Political Economy.

Smith, Alexander (1829-67) of Kilmarnock. Poet, novelist and pattern designer. His first and very popular publication A Life Drama (1853) was followed by City Poems (1857) and Edwin of Deira (1861)

Smith, Sir George (1856-1942) Calcutta-born Scot. Biblical scholar and minister. Chaplain to the King (1933-42). His writings include Historical Geography of the Holy Land (1894), The Twelve Prophets (1896-1897), Jerusalem (1907) and The Early Poetry of Israel (1912).

Smith, lain Crichton, born 1928 in Lewis. Poet and novelist in English and Gaelic. His novels incl. Consider the Lilies (1968) and The Last Summer (1969)

Smith, James (1789-1850) of Deanston, Perthshire. Agricultural Engineer and Philanthropist. The inventor of 'Thorough Drainage' by means of a subsoil plough (1823). He had also been the inventor of a rotary reaping machine in 1811.

Smith, James D. M. (1895-1969) educ. Aberdeen. Financial Sec. Singapore (1947-51), UN Tech. Asst. Administrator, Nicaragua (1953-55), Brazil (1957-58) and Venezuela (1959-61).

Smith, Norman Kemp (1872-1958) of Dundee. Philosopher and Professor of Psychology (1906) and of Philosophy (1914) at Princeton, USA. Was notable for his remarkable Studies (1902), New Studies (1952) and selected translations of Descartes philosophical writings (1953).

Smith, Robert A. (1909-) of Kelso. Professor of Physics, Sheffield Univ. (1961-62). First Director, Centre of Materials Science and Engineering, Mass. Inst. of Technology (1962-69).

Smith, Sydney Goodsir (1915-75) Scottish poet and critic born in Wellington, New Zealand. His main themes are love and nationalism. Poems incl. 'So Late into the Night' (1952), 'Figs and Thistles' (1959), 'Cokkels' (1954) and 'Under the Elder Tree' (1948).

Smith, Walter Chalmers (1842-1908) of Aberdeen. Poet who attained a considerable reputation. He was also a minister of the Free Church of Scotland. His works included The Bishop's Walk' (1861) and 'A Heretic' (1890).

Smith, Sir William Alexander (1854-1914) of Pennyland, Thurso. Founder in 1883 of the Boy's Brigade.

Smith, William Robertson (1846-94) of Keig, Aberdeenshire. Theologian and Orientalist. In 1883 he became Lord Almoner's Prof. of Arabic at Cambridge, and in 1886 University Librarian and Adam's Prof. of Arabic in 1889. In 1887 he became chief editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.

SMOLLET, Tobias George (1721-71) of Cardross, Dunbartonshire. Novelist and surgeon. Sailed as a surgeon's mate on the expedition to Carthagena (1741). Practised in London as a surgeon. His literary work had mixed reception, and he was nicknamed 'Smelfungus' by Sterne.

SNELL, John (1629-79) of Ayrshire. Philanthropist. Founder of the Snell exhibition at Balliol Coll., Oxford.

Trimmed or smooth grass.

The family are descended from Sir Walter de Somerville, who came into England with Wil liam the Conqueror; his son, William de Somerville, settled in Scotland.

Somerville, nee Fairfax, Mary (1780-1872) of Jedburgh. Mathematician and scientific writer. Wrote Celestial Mechanism in 1830. Somerville College Oxford is named after her.

SOUTER, William (1898-1943) of Perth. Poet. His best works included 'In the times of Tyrants' (1939) and The Expectant Silence (1943). His collection Seeds in the Wind (1933) and Poems in Scots (1935) gave him a place in Scottish literature. He was bedridden for the last 14 years of his life from a form of paralysis.

SPALDING, John (c. 1609-70) of Aberdeen. Diarist, royalist and Com-missary clerk after whom was named a book club (1839-70).

SPARK, Muriel (1918-) of Edinburgh. Novelist and poet. Her works included The Comforters (1957), The Prime of Jean Brodie (1961) and Mendelbaum (1965).

SPENCE, Sir Basil Unwin (1907-76) born in India of Scottish parents. Professor of Architecture, Royal Academy. Designed the new Coventry Cathedral (1951) and many other outstanding architectural masterpieces.

SPENCE, James Lewis Thomas Chalmers (1874-1955) of Broughty-Ferry. Anthropologist, author, poet and editor. An authority on the mythology and customs of ancient Mexico, South America and the Middle East as well as Celtic Britain's. His The Gods of Mexico (1923) is a standard work.

The family are descended from "William de Spens of Lathallan in Fifeshire, 1392, who married Isabel, daughter and heiress of Duncan Campbell of Glen Douglas, in commemoration of which the family quarter the Campbell arms of gyronny of eight or and sable.

An hospital.

SPOTTISWOOD, John (1565-1639) of Midcalder. Prelate and his-torian. Sometime Archbishop of Glasgow and St Andrews, and in 1635 Lord Chancellor of Scotland. His publications include History of the Church of Scotland (1635).

Local: from the Barony of Spottiswoode in Berwickshire. The family are descended from Robert de Spottiswoode, temp. Alexander III.

Spottiswoode, Alicia Ann (Lady John Scott), (1810-1900) of Lauder. Poetess, composer and author. Became known for her Scottish songs 'Durisdeer' and others. She wrote 'Annie Laurie' and composed the music.

STAIR James Dalrymple, 1st Viscount (1619-95) of Ayrshire. President of the Court of Session and member of the Privy Council (1670-).

STAIR Sir John Dalrymple, 1st Earl of (1648-1707) son of above. Judge and politician. Was Lord Advocate under William III and as Sec. of State from 1691 had chief management of Scottish affairs.

STAIR John Dalrymple (1673-1747) of Edinburgh. Soldier. Was aide-de-camp to Marlborough in 1703. Distinguished himself at Oudenarde (1708) and Malplaquet. Became a General in 1712 and a Field-Marshal in 1742.

ST CLAIR, Arthur (c. 1734-1818) of Thurso. Soldier and General. As a Lieutenant under General Wolfe he carried the colours on the Plains of Abraham. Sometime adviser to General Washington. Was elected President of Congress and Government of North West Territories.

STEEL, David Martin Scott (1938-) of Buckhaven, Fife. Journalist, broadcaster and politician. Was leader of the Liberal Party from 1976 to 1987.

STEELE, Sir John (1804-91) of Aberdeen. Sculptor. His best work, the equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington (1832) and that of Prince Albert (1876) in Edinburgh.

Local: from the town of Stein in the Isle of Skye.


Stephen, Robert A. (1907-) educ. Aberdeen. Major-General (1961), Director of Army Surgery and Consulting Surgeon to the Army, RAMC College (1959-67).

STEPHENS, Joseph Rayner (1805-79) of Edinburgh. Social reformer. Made his name as a factory reformer. He was imprisoned for his struggle for the Ten Hours Act (1847).

STERLING, John (1806-44) of Kames Castle, Bute. Writer and noted contributor to The Times. In 1838 he founded the Sterling Club, among whose members were Carlyle, Alien Cunningham, Tennyson and Venables.

STEVENSON, Dorothy Emily (1892-1973) of Edinburgh, cousin of R. L. Stevenson. Author of novels and children's verse. Her best known novels incl. Mrs Tim of the Regiment (1932) and several other Mrs Tim books.

STEVENSON, Robert (1772-1850) of Glasgow. Builder of Lighthouses (incl. Bellrock). Invented the flashing system. He built 23 Scottish light-houses, and was also a consulting engineer for roads, bridges, canals, harbours and railways. He was the grandfather of R. L. Stevenson.

STEVENSON, Robert Louis Balfour (1850-94) of Edinburgh. Novelist and poet. His romantic thriller Treasure Island (1883) was his most famous. Kidnapped (1886), The Master of Ballantrae (1889), Catrina (1893) and many others were and still are very popular.

STEVENSON, Robert S. (1889-1967) of Edinburgh. Consultant Ear, Nose and Throat Surgeon, Colonial Hosp., Gibraltar (1954-). Lecturer in Chicago (1948), Toronto (1952), Bristol (1955), London (1956), Philadelphia (1957) and Yale Univ. (1958).

STEVENSON, Thomas (1818-87) of Edinburgh. Constructor of light-houses, with his father Robert and brother David. Lighting methods was his particular interest. He invented the Thermometer Screen which carries his name.

Banquo, Thane of Lochabyr, was Steward to Duncan I; the descendants of his grandson, Walter, who was created by Malcolm Canmore, Lord High Steward of Scotland, assumed the surname of Stewart or Stuart.

Stewart, Alexander B. (1908-) educated Broughty-Ferry. Physician. Became Medical Adviser to the Greater London Council in 1965.

Stewart, Alexander D. (1883-1969) of Blairgowrie. Sometime Director of All India Institute of Hygiene, Calcutta.

Stewart, Alfred (1880-1947) of Glasgow. Scientist and writer of detective stories. Sometime Professor of Chemistry at Queen's Coll., Belfast. His stories incl. Murder in the Maze, The Case with Nine Solutions and The Boat House Riddle.

Stewart, Andy (1933-) of Glasgow. Composer, comedian and broadcaster. Became popular as host on TV's show The White Heather Club. His recording of A Scottish Soldier sold about half a million copies.

Stewart, Dugald (1753-1828) of Edinburgh. Scholar and philosopher. Professor of Moral Philosophy. His works incl. Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind (3 vols. 1792-1817), and View of the Active and Moral Powers of Man (1828).

Stewart, Francis Teresa, Duchess of Richmond and Lennox (1647-1702), daughter of Lord Blantyre. Described by Pepys as the greatest beauty he ever saw in his life. She posed for the effigy of Britannia on the coinage.

Stewart, Sir Houston (1791-1895) of Ardgowan. Appointed Admiral of the Fleet in 1872.

Stewart, Sir lain (1916-) of Glasgow. Directorships in Beaverbrook Newspapers Ltd., BEA, Eagle Star Ins. Co. Ltd., Royal Bank of Scot-land Ltd., Lyie Shipping Co. Ltd. and British Caledonian Airline. He resigned BEA in 1974.

Stewart, James (Changed his name to Stewart Granger) (1913-) born in London, son of a Scottish army major, James Stewart. Actor. Achieved worldwide fame by his many starring roles in films such as The Man in Gray, Madonna of the Seven Moons, Waterloo Road, Saraband for Dead Lovers, Adam and Evelyn, Young Bess, The Prisoner of Zenda, Beau Brummell, Bhowani Junction and Harry Black and the Tiger.

Stewart, John Innes Mackintosh, born 1906 near Edinburgh. Scholar and detective story writer. Appointed in 1935 to the Chair of English at Adelaide University. His detective stories were written under the pseudonym 'Michael Innes' and the most successful included Seven Suspects (1936), Lament for a Maker (1939), A Comedy of Errors (1940) and The Man from the Sea (1955).

Stewart, John (Jackie) Young, born 1939 at Milton, Dunbarton-shire. Grand Prix motor racing driver. World champion 1969, '71 and '73. Runner up 1972. Retired from motor racing in 1973.

Stewart, Roderick (Rod) David (1945-) born in London of Scottish parents. Super star entertainer and the most enduring of 'Pop' stars.

Stewart, Sir William (1774-1827) of Galloway. Soldier, became Lieut.- General and served with distinction under Wellington.

Stewart, William Ross (1889-1966) of Edinburgh. Major-General. Surgeon to the Viceroy of India (1933-36). Deputy Director Medical Services, Ceylon Command HQ (1942-44) and to North Command, India (1945-46).

Local: from the town of Stirling in Stirlingshire. Sir John Stirling of Glorat, was armor bearer to James I.

STIRLING, David. As a young lieutenant in 1941, David Stirling won a battle against military bureaucracy - he was able, against all odds, to introduce a new concept in fighting. Although it was disbanded after the war, the effectiveness of the Special Air Service resulted in its being re-formed six years later to meet the specialized demands of counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism in a host of limited-intensity conflicts.

STIRLING, James Hutchison (1820-1909) of Glasgow. Idealist, philosopher and lecturer. His Secret of Hegel (1865) introduced that Philosopher's system into Britain and was a masterly exposition.

STIRLING, Dr Robert (1790-1878) of Methven, Perthshire. Invented a type of gas-sealed internal combustion engine in 1817. Currently being re-examined by engineers in Britain, Holland and America in connection with the development of a low pollution engine.

STIRLING, William (1851-1932) of Grangemouth. Professor of Physiology and History, Victoria Univ., Manchester. Sometime Professor of Physiology, Royal Institute of London.

STIRLING-ANSELAN, John E. (1875-1936) of Stirlingshire. Admiral. Served in China during the Boxer Rising (1900). Admiral Superinten-dent Chatham Dockyard (1927-31).

STIRLING-MAXWELL, Sir William (1818-78) of Glasgow. Historical writer, critic and virtuoso. Was the first British collector to buy Spanish paintings of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

A young ox.

STOUT, Sir Robert, (1844-1930) of Shetland Isles. Member of Legislative Council of New Zealand (1926-30). Chief Justice of New Zealand (1899-1926).

STOW, David (1793-1864) of Paisley. Pioneer of coeducation. Advo-cated the mixing of sexes and the abolition of prizes and corporal punishment in schools.

Local: from the parish of Strachan in Kincardineshire. The family are descended from Walderus de Strathecan, 1165.

Strachan, Douglas (1875-1950) of Aberdeen. Artist. Political cartoonist for the Manchester Chronicle (1895-97). He designed the windows for the shrine of the Scottish National War Memorial, Edinburgh. Goldsmith's Window in St Paul's Cathedral was also by him.

Strachan, John (1778-1867) of Aberdeen. Minister, became the first Bishop of Toronto in 1839.

Local: from the parish of Straiton in Ayrshire.

STRANG, William (1859-1921). Painter and illustrator. Was an etcher of world class.

STRANGE or Strang, Sir Robert (1721-92) of Kirkwall, Orkney. Line engraver with a European reputation. He was made a member of the Academies of Rome, Paris, Florence, Bologna and Palma (1760-65).

STRATH, Sir William born 1909, educ. Glasgow. Sometime Chairman British Aluminium Co. Ltd., and several other Companies. Served in the Min. of Aircraft Production, Min. of Supply, and the Treasury (1940-55). Member of Atomic Energy Auth. (1955-59) and Permanent Sec. Min of Aviation (1959-69).

STRATHALMOND, (William Eraser) 1st Baron of Pumpherston (1888-1970). Chairman of British Petroleum Co. Ltd. (1941-56), Director Burmah Oil Co. Ltd., and National Provincial Bank Ltd., etc.

STRATHCLYDE, (Thomas D. Galbraith) 1st Baron of Barskimming, born 1891. Under-Sec, of State for Scotland (1945 and 1951-55). Chairman North of Scotland Hydro-Elect. Bd. (1959-).

STRATHCONA, (Donald Alexander Smith) 1st Baron (1820-1914) of Morayshire. Canadian Statesman. Chief promoter of the Canadian Pacific Railway (1885). High Commissioner for Canada in London (1896).

STRATHNAIRN, (Hugh Rose) 1st Baron (1801-85), born in Berlin, soldier son of Scottish Diplomat, Sir George Rose. He virtually reconquered central India, and succeeded Lord Clyde as Commander in Chief, India (1860-65). He held the same post in Ireland (1865-70).

A man of discernment.

Vide, Stewart.

Stuart, Sir Alexander (1825-86) of Edinburgh. Premier of New South Wales, Australia (1883-85).

Stuart, Charles Edward Louis Philip Casimir (1720-88) known as the 'Young Pretender' and 'Bonnie Prince Charlie'. In 1745 he defeated the English under Cope, at Prestonpans, invaded England and marched as far south as Derby, but was later overwhelmed at Culloden by the Duke of Cumberland.

Stuart, John, 3rd Earl of Bute (1713-92). First Scottish Prime Minister of Great Britain (1762-63).

Stuart, John McDougall (1815-66) of Dysart, Fife. Engineer, surveyor and explorer in central Australia. Made six expeditions into the interior (1858-62). With Wm. Landsborough were the first to cross Australia from south to north. Mount Stuart is named after him.

Local: from the county of Sutherland. The family are descended from Allan, Thane of Sutherland, temp. Malcolm Canmore.

The Earls of Sutherland, who were chiefs of the clan till 1514, are descended from Freskin, the progenitor of the Murrays. The Earldom of Sutherland, claimed to be the oldest in Britain, is alleged to have been granted to William, Lord of Sutherland, about 1228. William was the greatgrandson of Freskin, the ancestor of the Murrays of Atholl. William, 2nd Earl of Sutherland, fought for
Bruce at Bannockburn, and his son Kenneth, 3rd Earl, was killed at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. William, 4th Earl, married a daughter of Robert the Bruce. His successors had many feuds with neighbouring clans. particularly the Mackays. John, 9th Earl, died in 1514 without male issue, and the title passed to his sister, whose husband was Adam Gordon, of Aboyne.

The Gordon Earls of Sutherland encountered the same inter-clan enmities as their predecessors, and John, 11th Earl, and his Countess were poisoned by Isobel Sinclair at the instigation of the Earl of Caithness. William, 18th Earl, died in 1766, the last of the Gordon Earls of Sutherland. His daughter Elizabeth, Countess of Sutherland, married George Granville Leveson-Gower, afterwards Marquis of Stafford, who was created Duke of Sutherland in 1833..

Sutherland, Alexander (1852-1902) of Glasgow. Australian journalist. Mathematical master in the Scotch College Melbourne (1875-77) and Principal of Carlton Coll., Melbourne (1877-92).

Sutherland, Donald (1835-1919) of Wick, Caithness. Known as 'The Hermit of Milford Sound' in New Zealand. Discovered Sutherland Falls (one of the world's highest) which bears his name at Milford Sound. Sometime served in Italy with the forces of Garibaldi.

Sutherland, George A. (1891-1970) of New Deer, Aberdeenshire. Physicist. Principal of Dalton Hall, Univ. of Manchester (1924-58). Lecturer on Physics in London and South Africa.

Sutherland, Sir Gordon, born 1907 in Watten, Caithness. Profes-sor of Physics at Univ. Coll., Michigan (1949-55). Master of Emmanuel Coll. Cambridge from 1964.

Sutherland, Sir lain (1925-86) son of a Wick-born artist. Diplomat. British Ambassador in Moscow (1982-85). His previous postings included Belgrade, Havana, Washington, Djakarta and Greece.

Sutherland, James (1849-1905) born in Canada, son of Alexr. Sutherland of Caithness. Became Minister of Public Works in Canada.

Sutherland, John (1808-91) of Edinburgh. Promoter of sanitary science. Was sent to Crimea in 1855 to investigate the sanitary conditions of British soldiers.

Sutherland, Sir Thomas (1834-1922) of Aberdeen. Retired in 1914 as Chairman P & 0 Steam Navigation Co. and of the London Board of Suez Canal Co. Sometime Director of the London City and Midland Bank and Chairman, Marine and General Assurance Society.

SWAN, Annie Shepherd (Mrs D. C. Burnett) (1860-1943) from near Gorebridge. Novelist. Wrote Aldersyde (1883) and a great number of popular novels.

SWINBURNE, Sir James (1858-1958) of Inverness. Electrical engineer. Took out over 100 patents during his lifetime. Was an accomplished musician and set two of Tennyson's poems to music. Elected Fellow of the Royal Society.

Local: from the Barony of Swinton in Berwickshire. The family are descended from Edulph de Swinton, 1060.

Swinton, Alan Campbell. Scottish electrical engineer. In 1908 he suggested an electronic television system in an article in the scientific journal Nature. He proposed that the cathode-ray tube could be used not only as a receiver, it could also be used to transmit pictures.

The son of Symon, or Simon. The Gaelic words sema and syma, signify a peacemaker. The word syme or sime, in old Norman French, signifies sixth. The first of the name found on record is Syme of Spalding, also called Peter Spalding, who married a cousin of the Earl of Dunbar, and was a Burgess and also Governor of Berwick, which town he delivered by stratagem from the English to the Scots in 1318.

Syme, David (1827-1908) of North Berwick. Became an Australian newspaper proprietor and economist.

SYMES, James (1799-1870) of Edinburgh. Famous surgeon in his day. Professor Clinical Surgery, wrote on pathology, stricture, fistula, incised wounds, etc. Discovered a method of dissolving rubber to produce a water-proofing solution. He did not patent the discovery which was later taken up by Charles Mackintosh in the manufacture of waterproof fabrics.

Local: from the parish of Symington in Ayrshire. Originally called Symonstoun, from Simon Lockhart, who held the lands under Walter the first Steward.

Symington, William (1763-1831) of Leadhills. Millwright and inventor. Built one of the first steamboats in 1788. It had two paddle wheels in the middle of the deck. He was the inventor of a horizontal double-acting steam engine which he patented and fitted in the tug Charlotte Dundas in 1801. Unfortunately he died in poverty in London.

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